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Proven dairy technologies for smallholder and medium scale market-oriented dairy systems

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Presented by Kwaku Agyemang, FAO Consultant at the FAO-ILRI Regional Training Workshop on Proven Livestock Technologies, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 3-5 December 2018

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Proven dairy technologies for smallholder and medium scale market-oriented dairy systems

  1. 1. Proven dairy technologies for smallholder and medium scale market-oriented dairy systems Kwaku Agyemang, FAO Consultant FAO-ILRI Regional Training Workshop on Proven Livestock Technologies, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 3-5 December 2018
  2. 2. RECAP OF WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES AS RELATED TO THE DAIRY PRESENTATION Introduction • A three-day training workshop bringing together livestock farmers, processors and marketers belonging to various Associations in eight countries under the umbrella of the East Africa Farmers Federation . • The main objective is to train actors in the dairy sectors in livestock- based technologies, and to share experiences in technology use and uptake • The training workshop will focus on ILRI generated scalable technologies improved dairy production and proven management practices. • The Presentation deals with dairying, research and field trials and interventions that were carried out by various ILRI programs in East and West Africa, upon which basis the dairy technologies were developed and introduced to farmers and processors
  3. 3. Order of Presentation of course materials/information A: Background and Context • Why should the dairy sectors receive interventions/improvements with technologies and policies/strategies? • What have the dairy sectors/industries been like in the past, prior to interventions • In which/what systems are dairying taking place • Bottlenecks, constraints and challenges in the systems • Addressing bottle necks and constraints: towards the development of technologies • Examples of pre-technology interventions, and response to interventions
  4. 4. Order of Presentation of course materials/information B: Three ILRI/Partners Proven Technologies in support of Dairying in Eastern Africa with emphasis on Kenya  The proven Technologies  Stakeholders  Commercial Aspects of the Technologies  Gender and Youth roles  Known challenges with technologies  Key Lessons to consider for scaling the Technology
  5. 5. In Brief: Just in case we are not able to go through all slides Will tell you about a few technologies ILRI/ILCA developed or fine-tuned A brief history of how the technologies came into being Give a few examples of the data used to formulate technologies and how these give some level of confidence in the use of the technologies Refer to some farmers in Central and Western Kenya who used the technologies What ILRI learnt from the adoption studies on these technologies Resources available • This Power Presentation will be available to all Participants • A comprehensive Lecture Notes from which the Presentation was made will be available to all Participants
  6. 6. WHY INTERVENTIONS IN THE DAIRY SECTORS IN EASTERN AFRICA Dairy sectors crucial for development and employment • In some countries in the region (Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda) dairy sectors contribute substantially to Agricultural GDP, and provide significant employment. • Poverty reduction in some countries • Food and Nutrition security from consumption of milk and dairy products in all countries • East Africa is the leading first milk producing region in Africa, • Dairying one of the fastest growing agriculture sub-sectors in East African countries
  7. 7. WHY INTERVENTIONS IN THE DAIRY SECTORS IN EASTERN AFRICA • Eastern Africa is a prime example of where the Concept of value addition has been successful • Intra-regional trade in dairying is slowly rising, in- spite of it being essentially domestic enterprises • Dairying sectors forging Regional Integration---- common policies being developed • Despite these positive developments in the region there exists serious bottlenecks and constraints in the Sector
  8. 8. HOW HAVE DAIRYING DEVELOPMENT BEEN LIKE AS SECTORS OR SUBSECTORS PASTORAL SYSTEMS: • Rely on local genotypes generally not really improved for dairy production, example Zebu cattle as found in Maasai herds in Kenya. • Feeding and watering systems based on trekking long distances, looking for feeds/forages as found in rangelands. Rarely or only infrequent diet supplementation with processed or compounded feeds: • Animal Health: Minimal health inputs, often applied without standardized dosage, application of local traditional medications of no quantified benefits • Products processing: Basic. Mainly based on souring and fermentation at household level • Marketing/Distribution: Exchanges with local communities, minimal collection for sale to commercial concerns
  9. 9. BOTTLENECKS/CONSTRAINTS/CHALLENGES IN THE DAIRY SYSTEMS The bottlenecks, constraints and challenges usually manifest themselves in  Low rate of processing capacity utilization  Low demand for processed dairy products, notably pasteurized milk  Limited diversification  High cost of production  Seasonal fluctuation—seasonal shortages  Poor milk quality limits volume of processed milk products (milk powder, sour milk
  10. 10. BOTTLENECKS/CONSTRAINTS/CHALLENGES IN THE DAIRY SYSTEMS The bottlenecks, constraints and challenges usually manifest themselves in  Low productivity of 0.5 litre to 3 litres of daily milk offtake from local breeds of cattle and 3-5 litres from improved breeds  Poor infrastructure  Low use of technologies  Absence or inadequate private sector participation in formulating and implementation of economic and sectoral policies
  11. 11. TECHNOLOGIES NEEDED BUT HOW DO THEY COME ABOUT? Technologies are often developed from scratch based on extensive research and field trials or Adapted from existing technologies from elsewhere ,and used after modifications based on field trials: • Confidence in Technologies often depends on the manner in which they were developed, the quality of information collected and the reliability on field testing results • Effectiveness of Technologies often depend on the range of environments where the research trials took place or where technologies were tested for adaptation.
  12. 12. DAIRY AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES AS ONE OF THE AVENUES OF ADDRESSING BOTTLENECKS AND CONSTRAINTS APPROACHES TOWARDS TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  Research  Experimentations  Field trials and testing  Response Studies  Community participation  Financial and economic evaluations of interventions
  13. 13. In the Beginning, ILCA (ILRI) created a Conceptual Framework for Dairy Reseach and Development Objectives: The broad objective of research conducted within this framework is to identify and act upon relevant researchable issues and improvement options to promote the development of the dairy sector in sub-Saharan Africa. The specific objectives are to: • Understand the evolution and development trends of dairy systems • Characterise existing dairy systems • Identify constraints and opportunities, and prioritise the researchable issues for improvement of dairy systems • Develop and test cost-efficient technologies/components for improvment of dairy systems • Develop policy strategies to support efficient dairy systems • Make impact on NARS dairy systems research programmes through the development of methodologies and tools, including models, that could be used by them.
  14. 14. EXAMPLES OF INTERVENTIONS LEADING TO TECHNOLOGY FORMULATION : West Africa Experiences WEST AFRICA EXPERIENCE: Establishing the Baselines: Surveys, Monitoring Breed System of Production/Co untry Milk offtake* (kg) Milk yield (kg) Lactation length (days) Average yield or offtake per day (kg) Zebu White Fulani (Bunaji) Station/Nigeria 627 194 3.23 " " 1034 245 4.22 " Settled Pastoral/Nigeri a 234 - " " 286 - Sudanese Fulani Pastoral/Mali 219 - 330 0.66 " Station/Mali 522 Sokoto Gudali Station/Nigeria - 1289 294 4.38
  15. 15. EXAMPLES OF INTERVENTIONS LEADING TO TECHNOLOGY FORMULATION : West Africa Experiences Establishing the baseline (Continued) IT IS CLEAR FROM TABLE THAT FOR INDIGENOUS DUAL PURPOSE BREEDS CONSIDERABLE VARIATIONS IN MILK YIELD OCCURS. THEREFORE CHOICE OF BREEDS IS CRUCIAL Wadara Station/Nigeria - 1212 259 4.68 Azawak Station/Burkina Faso - 530 158 3.36 Taurines West African Dwarf Shorthorn (Muturu) Station/Nigeria - 421 216 1.95 Lagune Traditional/Tog o 295 - 225 1.31 Ghana Shorthorn Station/Ghana - 774 295 2.62 N'Dama (2 x milking) Village/Gambia 440 - 434 1.01 N'Dama (1 x milking) Village/Gambia 322 - 525 0.61 Kuri Kuri Station/Nigeria - 1350 300 4.5 Kuri x Wadara Station/Nigeria - 3126 336 9.28
  16. 16. FEED AND FEEDING INTERVENTIONS FOR MILKING SYSTEMS FOR VARIOUS CATTLE GENOTYPES UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: RESPONSE STUDIES System/Location/ Year/Season Feed type/level Duratio n of trial (wks) Milk offtake (kg/d) % increase in milk over level Previous Base Zero-grazed/Bunaji (full diet) Ibadan, Nigeria, 1997 (1) (See Fig. 5.2) ED Peri-urban/Bunaji (Supplementation to communal grazing), Kaduna, Nigeria, 1997 (2) (See Fig. 5.1) LD Zero-grazed/crossbred (Friesian-Bunaji) Zaria, Nigeria, 1994 (3) Mix CSC, DBG, LH 3.5 kg TDN/d 4.5 5.5 6.5 Mix CSC, DBG, GH 0 kgTDN/d 1 2 3 4 LH/SS 1 kg LH/d 1.5 2.0 12 weeks 12 weeks 2.1 2.0 3.2 3.0 0.75 1.75 2.30 2.25 2.40 3.45 3.82 4.79 4.93 - - 5 5 56 57 -6 43 - - 130 130 31 206 -2 200 7 220 - - 12 12 25 39 3 43
  17. 17. IMPACT OF INCREASED QUANTITY & QUALITY FEEDS ON MILK YIELDS IT IS CLEAR FROM TABLE THAT FOR ALL GENOTYPES OF CATTLE BREEDS USED FOR MILK PRODUCTION, INCREASES IN MILK YIELDS RESULTED FROM INTERVENING WITH SUPERIOR FEEDS, AND GENERALLY MORE MILK RESULTED FROM MORE OF THE SUPERIOR FEEDS
  18. 18. ANIMAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: DEWORWING, TICK CONTROL System/Location/ Year/Season Type of intervention N Frequency/ duration of intervention MO (kg/mo) CONT. TRT MO over control group % Peri-urban/Bunaji Kaduna, Nigeria, 1995-96 (1) ED/LD/EW/LW " " Peri-urban/Bunaji Oyo, Nigeria, 1997-8 (2) ED/LD/EW/LW Peri-urban/Bunaji, Zaria, Nigeria, 1997 (3) LD/EW Peri-urban/Bunaji, Zaria, Nigeria, 1998 (3) LD/EW Peri-urban/Gobra St Louis, Senegal, 1998 (4) LD/EW Peri-urban/Zebu S-bougou/Mali, 1997 (5) LD/EW Helminth control (Levamisol) Tick control (Pour-on acaricide) Tick + Helminth control (Levamisol) Helminth control (Albenzal) Helminth control (Banminth-f) Helminth control (Banaminth-f) Helminth control (Exhelm/Disto) Helminth control (Fenbendazole) 20 20 20 18 40 33 30 15 8x/yr 4x/yr 8x, 4/yr 3x/yr 3x/4 mo 3x/4 mo 1x/5 mo 2x/3 mo 22 22 22 20 20 20 5 66 31 28 34 23 19 23 6 93 40 27 54 15 -17 16 10 41
  19. 19. IMPACT OF ANIMAL HEALTH & FEEDS INTERVENTIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION System/Location/ Year Type of intervention† Frequenc y/ Duration of interventi on MO (kg/mo) CON. TRT Peri- urban/Bunaji, § Oyo, Nigeria, 1997-8 ED/LD/EW/LW (1) Peri-urban/Bunaji Zaria, Nigeria, 1997 LD/EW (2) Peri-urban/Bunaji Zaria, (6) Helminth control + feed supplementat ion Helminth control + feed supplementat ion §Helminth control + Feed supplementat 3x/yr per year daily for 4 mos 3x/4 mo daily for 4 mos 3x/4 mo daily for 4 mos 1x/5 mo daily for 5 mos 20 23 20 5 25 38 32 20
  20. 20. IMPACT OF ANIMAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION IT IS CLEAR FROM TABLE THAT FOR ALL GENOTYPES OF CATTLE BREEDS USED FOR MILK PRODUCTION, INCREASES IN MILK YIELDS RESULTED FROM INTERVENING WITH ANIMAL HEALTH INPUTS--- DEWORMING, TICK CONTROL. IT IS CLEAR FROM TABLE THAT FOR ALL GENOTYPES OF CATTLE BREEDS USED FOR MILK PRODUCTION, INCREASES IN MILK YIELDS RESULTED FROM INTERVENING WITH ANIMAL HEALTH INPUTS--- DEWORMING AND WITH FEEDS/FEEDING INTERVENTIONS BUT ARE THESE PRACTICES PROFITABLE?
  21. 21. PROFITABILITY OF FEED AND ANIMAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS FOR MILK PRODUCTION System/Location/Year Type of intervention Margin in milk yield+ over untreated control (l) Margin in US$ over untreated control Benefit: Cost Ratio Peri-urban – Bunaji Oyo, Nigeria, 1997/8 (1) Peri-urban – Bunaji Zaria, Nigeria, 1997 (2) Peri-urban – Bunaji Zaria, Nigeria, 1998 (2) Peri-urban – Gobra St. Louis, Nigeria, 1998 (3) Peri-urban – Sanga Accra, Ghana, 1998 (4) Deworming Feed supplementation Deworming + Feed supplementation Deworming Feed supplementation Deworming + Feed supplementation Deworming Feed supplementation Deworming + Feed supplementation Deworming Feed supplementation Deworming + Feed supplementation Deworming Feed supplementation Deworming + Feed supplementation 70 36 149 59 61 165 52 127 183 0 92 157 0 41 96 30.60 13.89 67.05 -5.61 18.90 38.15 9.79 21.62 36.26 0 7.30 29.52 0 4.39 4.88 16.5:1 6.3:1 6.2:1 25.3:1 2.8:1 3.2:1 27.7:1 2.7:1 3.0:1 2.9:1 1.6:1 2.2:1 4.5:1 1.4:1 1.3:1
  22. 22. PROFITABILITY OF COMBINED INTERVENTIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION IT IS CLEAR FROM TABLE THAT FOR ALL GENOTYPES OF CATTLE BREEDS USED FOR MILK PRODUCTION, INCREASES IN MILK YIELDS RESULTED FROM INTERVENING WITH ANIMAL HEALTH INPUTS--- DEWORMING, TICK CONTROL AND WITH FEEDS/FEEDING INTERVENTIONS WERE PROFITABLE WITH FAVOURABLE BENEFIT:COST RATIO
  23. 23. SOME TECHNOLOGIES USED IN ILRI (ILCA) ENGAGEMENTS WITH FARMERS IN AFRICA SINGLE TECHNOLOGIES (COMPONENTS) • Improved genotypes – breeds, crossbreds, composite breeds • Feeds- forages, concentrates, combinations (supplements, full diets) • Feeding—practices, frequency • Milking practices (once, twice, thrice daily, alternates, etc) • Animal health inputs/interventions--- vaccinations, deworming, tick control, etc • Management (housing, milking practices, feeding) • Value addition- processing, storage, marketing
  24. 24. SOME TECHNOLOGIES USED IN ILRI (ILCA) ENGAGEMENTS WITH FARMERS IN AFRICA COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGIES • Genotype *Feeds • Genotype*Health • Feeds*Health • Genotype*Management • Genotype*Feed*Health • Genotype*Health*Management
  25. 25. ILRI AND ASSOCIATED PARTNERS PROVEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR DAIRY SECTORS A: KEEPING OF IMPROVED CATTLE OR GRADE CATTLE Improved or Grade cattle have at least 50% exotic dairy genes Crossbreds OR high grade cattle (cows) required EXAMPLES OF RESULTS FROM CENTRAL AND WESTERN KENYA Some results of the application of the technology and their adoption over several years evaluated in 1996-2000 and 2004.  Younger households started keeping improved cattle  Aging had negative effect on discontinuing grade cattle keeping  Getting more adult members over time has positive effect on starting dairy farms—illustrating the labour intensity of the activity  Large land size is needed for continuing build up/expanded use of grade cattle  Farmers with low availability of formal milk marketing outlets in their neighbourhood more likely NOT to keep grade cattle
  26. 26. LOOKING AHEAD AND BUILDING ON THE PAST AND LESSONS LEARNT A new development by ILRI and Partners, based on the experiences on testing and evaluating crossbred and grade cattle technologies is the “Dairy Genetics for Africa” under development. THE AFRICAN DAIRY GENETIC GAINS PROGRAM: The African Dairy Genetics Gain program works with small- scale farmers through partners (notably the Land O’ Lakes PAID program) to build ICT-based reporting and support systems which link farmers to sources of improved genetics and provide information for identifying better adapted genetics. Currently discussing partnerships to scale-out into additional African countries
  27. 27. ILRI AND ASSOCIATED PARTNERS PROVEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR DAIRY SECTORS B:Use of Feed Concentrates for feeding dairy cows Requires that concentrates form substantial part of cows diets Concentrates mostly bought from tested commercial sources Homemade compounded agro-industrial by products may contribute to feeds  Households with more adult members are more likely to start feeding concentrates, and LESS likely to stop it, reflecting the labour intensive nature of concentrate feeding.  Increased land size overtime increases the likelihood of NOT feeding concentrates, suggesting that additional land is used for planted fodder at the expense of using concentrates  Farmers with low availability of formal marketing outlets in their neighbourhood are MORE likely NOT to feed concentrates
  28. 28. ILRI AND ASSOCIATED PARTNERS PROVEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR DAIRY SECTORS C:Plant Fodder for dairy animals feeding A balanced proportion of grasses and leguminous plants recommended for planting, depending on other sources of feed available at farm level or for purchase Most likely grasses include Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureus ) or Brachiara For legume fodder, Centro (Centrocema pubescens), Green leaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum), Silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum), Glycine (Glycine javanica), Lucerne or Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Leucaena spp are among the likely candidates  Farmers who start growing fodder are those with less land, suggesting that under decreasing land availability, farmers find it appropriate to intensify dairy production by allocating some land to a dairy specialized crop like Napier grass or Brachiara  Farmers who do NOT keep improved cattle and do NOT grow planted fodder have lower market access.
  29. 29. LOOKING AHEAD AND BUILDING ON THE PAST AND LESSONS LEARNT A new development by ILRI and Partners, based on the experiences on testing and evaluating Napier grass technologies is the “New Brachiaria varieties for Africa” under development. New Brachiaria varieties for Africa Several varieties of Brachiaria, both local and imported from Latin America have been tested in different agro-ecological zones in Kenya and Rwanda with the KALRO and RAB, respectively. Several have proven to be adapted to drought and low fertility soils. By increasing forage availability by up to three months in the dry season, milk production increases between 15 and 50%, and live weight gains of over 50% in young cattle have been achieved. These varieties are now being tested in Mali with interest in Cameroon
  30. 30. MULTI-COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES IN DAIRY SECTORS D: COMBINATION OF KEEPING Crossbred/grade/improved genotypes, feeding of concentrates and planting of improved fodder for feeding of milking animals • A technology consisting of the three aforementioned technologies was also introduced to farmers as a total package. Health interventions were also part of the package in many instances. • The requirements of each of the single technologies may jointly apply in full or in modified forms
  31. 31. TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY : PRACTICAL STEPS The STEPS include: • Communicate: communication about the technology and what it seeks to address • Identify key persons and partner institutions to lead the change sought by the technology • Document the path which the technology will take to bring the required change • Assemble teams including community leaders that would ensure that the new technology is smoothly integrated into the dairy operations and farming systems Ensure that the core teams to introduce the technology are well versed in the background data/ information that prompted the development of the technology. • Put together the right team and work plans for introducing the technology the right timing that fits the routines and right calendar seasons must be identified before the actual on-the-field events.
  32. 32. STEPS USED IN DEVELOPING CROSSBRED COWS AND DISTRIBUTION TO FARMERS The Gambia Peri-Urban Dairy Scheme: The Lead Institution (ITC) with partners developed nucleus herd of N’Dama cattle females and inseminated them with Friesian and Jersey semen to produce F1s, preceded by communication. Management regimes were defined and documented. Milk production and reproduction performance among F1 females monitored and evaluated by teams. Process repeated under smallholder farm conditions to produce crossbreds, with training for farmers. Performance at farm level monitored, and technology fine-tuned. The Malawi smallholder dairy scheme: The initial provision of crossbred heifers and cows in first lactation to smallholder farmers in selected provinces followed a process of Government run research and multiplication stations undertaking the actual crossbreeding programme. The products (crossbred and composite cows) were then made available to smallholder dairy farmers, after undergoing the minimum required training in animal husbandry and improved management practices.
  33. 33. STAKEHOLDERS FOR A TYPICAL DAIRY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT , DISSEMINATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION For technologies in the dairy sectors the stakeholders will include all the actors in the continuum: Technology generators to consumers of milk and dairy products. These include  Research/Development Institutions and Partners  Producers and their Communities and Associations or Cooperatives  Processors and their Communities and Associations or Cooperatives  Marketers and their Communities and Associations or Cooperatives  Government/County Regulators  State/County/Local level government Revenue operators  Consumers and Associations  Donors/Development Partners
  34. 34. KNOWN CHALLENGES Crossbred/High grade cattle: • Production of crossbreds must initially be done by Government sub-vented institutions or private sector. This is tedious slow process, even with technologic advancement • Keeping and managing crossbreds at farm levels require special skills, often not possessed by many farmers Concentrates use • Manufacturing of concentrates pose challenges to actors in the chain, particularly with the often non-availability of ingredients for production • Use of concentrates at farm level is labour intensive Fodder/Forage Planting and Use • Difficulties in finding adaptable productive varieties • Low market development for forages
  35. 35. COMMERCIALIZATION ASPECTS OF THE THREE DAIRY TECHNOLOGIES Genotype-based: Keeping improved/high grade cattle for production • Production and Multiplication of crossbred cows and service bulls, and associated Artificial Insemination services. Private sector involvement emerging • Improved cattle induced increased milk production creating collection, storage, processing, transportation and marketing services Concentrate feeding Technology • Small scale, medium and large scale feed manufacturers • Bulk transporters • Ingredients and other input suppliers (producers/importers)
  36. 36. COMMERCIALIZATION ASPECTS OF THE THREE DAIRY TECHNOLOGIES Cultivating Fodder/Forage Technology  Farm Producers  Road side harvesters  Packers/Bailers  Traders/ Marketers  Transporters
  37. 37. DAIRY VALUE CHAINS IN EASTERN AFRICA: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Pursue joint regional investment promotion strategies to expand regional capabilities in manufacturing of exportable dairy products. • Improve relationships between processing plants and farmers, to encourage more farmers to sell to plants. • Train and license milk collectors to improve quality of milk supplied to processors. • Improve collaboration between public and private stakeholders, and relationships between these and the international development programmes. • Prioritise facilitating regional trade and exports from the region, given the binding constraint of weak domestic ability to pay for higher-value products.
  38. 38. Thank You
  39. 39. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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