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The Sustainable Use of Animal Genetics 
in Developing Countries 
Steve Staal 
2nd International Conference on Agricultural...
Outline of the Presentation 
The Livestock Revolution in SE Asia 
Models of livestock production 
Public vs private benefi...
Projected growth in demand for livestock 
products in SE Asia 
12000 
10000 
8000 
6000 
4000 
2000 
0 
Beef Pork Poultry ...
Large yield gaps linked to genetics 
Estimated opportunities to increase smallholder productivity 
$90 
$80 
$70 
$60 
$50...
Changes in SE ASIA Livestock 
Production Systems 
Drivers of change 
• Population growth and urbanization 
• Increases in ...
Models of 
livestock production 
Smallholders: The “household model” 
 Multiple objectives besides income, 
including ris...
The big challenge 
Demand for improved productivity frequently in conflict with 
diversity conservation 
Loss of diversity...
Private vs public 
Securing poor farmers’ livelihoods vs. keeping local breeds 
 Farmers are changing the genotype of the...
Private benefits to support sustainable 
conservation 
Recognize 2 forms of capturing 
private benefits 
– Demand side - T...
New business models to generate demand 
for local breeds in-situ conservation 
Demand side - Traits that the market is wil...
The alternative: Ex situ conservation 
To be effective, should consider multiple 
levels of conservation and data assembly...
On the supply side 
We must take account of the 
realities of small-scale 
livestock producers. 
Diversity of: 
 Environm...
New opportunities for phenotyping 
Can we skip a generation 
of technology? 
Fast, light, cheap 
performance data 
harves...
New opportunities for genotyping 
“traditional” linkage mapping requires crosses – so initial discovery is 
limited to var...
Genomic editing breakthrough 
Identify and make use of the 
genetics underlying natural 
variation. 
There has been no sys...
Discovery to delivery 
Genotyping Phenotyping 
Adapted & 
productive 
livestock 
Genome 
editing 
Targeting 
Data systems ...
Summary 
Growing demand and markets for livestock products 
is bringing about rapid change 
Lack of private incentives for...
Thank you for your attention 
Acknowledgements: 
Jackie Escarcha, Han Jianlin, Steve Kemp, Mwai Okeyo
better lives through livestock 
ilri.org 
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distr...
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The sustainable use of animal genetics in developing countries

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Presented by Steve Staal at the 2nd International Conference on Agricultural and Rural Development in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, 12 November 2014

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The sustainable use of animal genetics in developing countries

  1. 1. The Sustainable Use of Animal Genetics in Developing Countries Steve Staal 2nd International Conference on Agricultural and Rural Development in Southeast Asia Manila, Philippines, 12 November 2014
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation The Livestock Revolution in SE Asia Models of livestock production Public vs private benefits of conservation Opportunities through both demand and supply Conclusions
  3. 3. Projected growth in demand for livestock products in SE Asia 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Beef Pork Poultry Eggs Milk 1000s of MTs 2010 2030 Source: IFPRI IMPACT Model, 2013 Beef and poultry demand to double by 2030
  4. 4. Large yield gaps linked to genetics Estimated opportunities to increase smallholder productivity $90 $80 $70 $60 $50 $40 $30 $20 $10 $- Africa South Asia Total Smallholder Productivity Opportunity ($ Billion) See Appendix slide 26 for more detail on this model genetics animal health nutrition post harvest Animal genetics provides the largest opportunity across all geographies There is also opportunity in animal health, particularly in SSA Sources: estimates based on BMGF analytical models referencing multiple data sources including: Oct 4-5 Livestock Landscape Analysis Expert Panel Workshop; Oct 27 Livestock Foundation Genetics Workshop; Expert Interviews; FAOSTAT; OIE Technical Disease Cards; the Center for Food Security and Public Health Animal Disease Information; OIE-WAHID database; Merck Veterinary Manual; 2011 Market Probe market research for Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia
  5. 5. Changes in SE ASIA Livestock Production Systems Drivers of change • Population growth and urbanization • Increases in income • Market and trade liberalization • Climate change • New technology Consequences • Growth in demand of livestock products • Pressure on and degradation of the resource base • Scaling up of production and vulnerability of small farms • Increased competition Responses • Intensification of mixed crop-livestock systems • Genetic resource substitution • Policies for enhanced productivity
  6. 6. Models of livestock production Smallholders: The “household model”  Multiple objectives besides income, including risk reduction, diversification, insurance, and social capital  Up to 40% additional “returns” to livestock in other benefits  Maximum use of low cost resources and farm synergies, minimum use of purchased inputs Large producers: The “enterprise model”  Only 1 objective: profit (which has its own risks)  Capital intensive , mechanization and economies of scale
  7. 7. The big challenge Demand for improved productivity frequently in conflict with diversity conservation Loss of diversity caused by stakeholders’ choices primarily for economic reasons; The animal genetic requirements of industrial systems are thus characterized by:  ability to manage environment means less demand for breeds adapted to local environments or disease resistance  more demand for efficiency, and especially FCR to maximize benefit  more demand for quality traits due to consumer demand and technical requirements related to standardization, size, fat content, color, flavor, etc.
  8. 8. Private vs public Securing poor farmers’ livelihoods vs. keeping local breeds  Farmers are changing the genotype of their livestock assets, largely due to need for greater productivity  Farmers invest in livestock for private benefits  Society wants to maintain AnGR for long term public benefit  Is it fair to ask farmers to maintain public goods embedded in AnGR and to forego productivity gains and income?  How do we reconcile these two seemingly contradictory objectives?
  9. 9. Private benefits to support sustainable conservation Recognize 2 forms of capturing private benefits – Demand side - Traits that the market is willing to pay for – Production side – maximizing benefits of adaptation • Heat tolerance, hardiness, diet suitability, disease resistance • Social status due to traditional practices
  10. 10. New business models to generate demand for local breeds in-situ conservation Demand side - Traits that the market is willing to pay for  Strong SE Asian demand for unique taste, novelty, traditional consumption, and organic production  Animals raised grown in organic, sustainable and animal welfare friendly conditions  Converting public into private benefits through branding and certification  Structured cross-breeding systems provide an opportunity for in-situ conservation of indigenous breeds
  11. 11. The alternative: Ex situ conservation To be effective, should consider multiple levels of conservation and data assembly – Animal-level, genomic-level, gene-level (gene cluster, chromosome, karyotype-genome, semen) – And different types and levels of data to build the research resource • Other samples: hair or blood, or parasites on animal • Animal characterization such as GPS location of animal to capture environment, local breed-name, phenotype, productivity, etc – This allows ‘bio-banking’ of breeds under threat not only for preserving animals for an unknown future need, but also for creating an important research resource for example, for gene discovery.
  12. 12. On the supply side We must take account of the realities of small-scale livestock producers. Diversity of:  Environment  Climate  Feeds available  Endemic diseases  Local market context  Infrastructure  Institutions No data systems to inform selection. No infrastructure to manage selection.
  13. 13. New opportunities for phenotyping Can we skip a generation of technology? Fast, light, cheap performance data harvesting.  Cheap sensors, mobile platforms, crowd sensing…..  Simultaneously providing management information to the farmer and performance data to the breeder.
  14. 14. New opportunities for genotyping “traditional” linkage mapping requires crosses – so initial discovery is limited to variants within a species Cow NDama KFITRRPSLKTLQEKGLIKDQIFGSPLHTLCEREKSTVPRFVKQCIEAVEK Cow Boran KFITRRPSLKTLQEKGLIKDQIFGSHLHTLCEREKSTVPRFVKQCIEAVEK Human KFISRRPSLKTLQEKGLIKDQIFGSHLHTVCEREHSTVPWFVKQCIEAVEK Pig KFITRRPSLKTLQEKGLIKDQIFGSHLHTVCERENSTVPRFVKQCIEAVEK Chicken KFISRRPSLKTLQEKGLIKDQIFGSHLHLVCEHENSTVPQFVRQCIKAVER Salmon KFISRRPSMKTLQEKGIIKDRVFGCHLLALCEREGTTVPKFVRQCVEAVEK Comparative gene network and sequence analysis allows to ask new kinds of questions about genomes – eg “what is different about this (group of) species compared to all other mammals”
  15. 15. Genomic editing breakthrough Identify and make use of the genetics underlying natural variation. There has been no systematic search for the genomic basis of adaptation. Because until now we have had no validation tools and no delivery tools. New Genome Editing tools change the landscape.
  16. 16. Discovery to delivery Genotyping Phenotyping Adapted & productive livestock Genome editing Targeting Data systems Delivery systems
  17. 17. Summary Growing demand and markets for livestock products is bringing about rapid change Lack of private incentives for smallholders to raise indigenous breeds threatens their survival of strategic AnGR Ex-situ conservation offers one alternative, but still to be explored In-situ conservation can be facilitated through several options Demand side: new market driven models to raise demand for specific traits for local breeds Supply side: exciting new genomic tools to increase adaptability and productivity of local breeds.
  18. 18. Thank you for your attention Acknowledgements: Jackie Escarcha, Han Jianlin, Steve Kemp, Mwai Okeyo
  19. 19. better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.

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