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Livestock policy paradoxes: Promulgating a crisis? Or providing a solution?

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Presented by Jimmy Smith at the 16th Asian Australasian Animal Production Congress on Sustainable Livestock Production in the Perspective of Food Security, Policy, Genetic Resources and Climate Change, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10–14 November 2014

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Livestock policy paradoxes: Promulgating a crisis? Or providing a solution?

  1. 1. Livestock policy paradoxes: Promulgating a crisis? Or providing a solution? 16th Asian Australasian Animal Production Congress Sustainable Livestock Production in the Perspective of Food Security, Policy, Genetic Resources and Climate Change Yogyakarta, Indonesia 10–14 November 2014 Jimmy Smith  Director General  ILRI
  2. 2. How to feed 10 billion people?
  3. 3. Food price crisis 2007/08: What can we learn?
  4. 4. Abundant food: Dealing with excess
  5. 5. Food comes from the supermarket (NOT)
  6. 6. Agricultural investment as portion of ODA fell from >15% in mid 80’s to <2.5% by early 2000
  7. 7. A ‘perfect storm’?
  8. 8. 8 0 50 100 150 200 250 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 FAO food price index
  9. 9. The crisis: The doubling of food prices
  10. 10. Mixed benefits: The poor lost out
  11. 11. Global aggregate food balance is not a good indicator of food security--Distribution matters as much
  12. 12. Trade matters: but its not a perfect system as the food price crisis showed –local markets matter too
  13. 13. Secret or privileged information: in a ‘black box -food stockpiles
  14. 14. The rush for resources to produce food –land grab or foreign direct investment?
  15. 15. The Livestock Revolution: Another ‘perfect storm’? Or a new opportunity?
  16. 16. % increase in production of livestock products: 2000–2050 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Raw milk Monogastric meat & eggs Ruminant meat Europe Latin America Africa/Middle East % Herrero et al. 2014
  17. 17. 17 Percentage growth in demand for livestock products: 2000−2030 Based on anticipated change in absolute tonnes of product comparing 2000 and 2030 FAO, 2012
  18. 18. 16 14 12 10 8 Less than 2 ha per person − shared with at 6 least 5 animals 4 2 0 Billion ha land per 1 million population Thousands of ha per person -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000
  19. 19. Demand for livestock commodities will be met – the only question is how Scenario #1 Africa meets livestock demand by importing livestock products
  20. 20. Demand for livestock commodities will be met – the only question is how Scenario #1 Africa meets livestock demand by importing livestock products Scenario #2 Africa meets livestock demand by importing livestock industrial production know-how
  21. 21. Demand for livestock commodities will be met – the only question is how Scenario #1 Africa meets livestock demand by importing livestock products Scenario #2 Africa meets livestock demand by importing livestock industrial production know-how Scenario #3 Africa meets livestock demand by transforming smallholder livestock systems
  22. 22. Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries
  23. 23. BMGF, FAO, ILRI Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries Region (definition of ‘smallholder’) % production by smallholder livestock farms Beef Chicken meat Sheep/goat meat Milk Pork Eggs East Africa (≤ 6 milking animals) 60-90 Bangladesh (< 3ha land) 65 77 78 65 77 India (< 2ha land) 75 92 92 69 71 Vietnam (small scale) 80 Philippines (backyard) 50 35
  24. 24. What policies can make the biggest difference?
  25. 25. 1 Encourage smallholder competitiveness with scale-neutral policies
  26. 26. 2 Facilitate broad-based growth with potential to transform rural economies
  27. 27. 3 Enhance local markets and market access
  28. 28. 4 Mitigate zoonoses and food safety risks
  29. 29. 5 Protect the environment (balanced incentives)
  30. 30. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 1. Food is both a private and public good – often a national security issue
  31. 31. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 1. Food is both a private and public good – often a national security issue 2. Paying attention to food policy and investment is critical
  32. 32. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 1. Food is both a private and public good – often a national security issue 2. Paying attention to food policy and investment is critical 3. In a crisis, global solidarity goes out the window
  33. 33. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 1. Food is both a private and public good – often a national security issue 2. Paying attention to food policy and investment is critical 3. In a crisis, global solidarity goes out the window 4. The poor, individuals and countries, suffer more from such crises
  34. 34. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 (cont.) 5. Governments hesitate to commit to agriculture, particularly livestock, and to smallholders
  35. 35. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 (cont.) 5. Governments hesitate to commit to agriculture, particularly livestock, and to smallholders 6. To remove this hesitancy, smallholders must contribute to national food and nutritional security, economic growth and transformation – not just to their own self-sufficiency
  36. 36. What we learned during and since the food price crisis of 2008 (cont.) 5. Governments hesitate to commit to agriculture, particularly livestock, and to smallholders 6. To remove this hesitancy, smallholders must contribute to national food and nutritional security, economic growth and transformation – not just to their own self-sufficiency 7. The livestock sector offers some of the best opportunities
  37. 37. Thank you!
  38. 38. Artworks SLIDES 1, 2: Paul Klee, ‘Colourful Group’, 1939 SLIDE 3: James and Michael Fitzgerald, ‘Leptosome’ (via theprojecttwins.com) SLIDE 4: Cow Butcher Diagram – ‘Use Every Part of the Cow’ cuts of beef poster (via Etsy) SLIDE 5: Azzaharahman (via Instagram) SLIDES 1, 6: Martin Devine, ‘Irish Farm’ (via ebsqart.com) SLIDE 7: Ancient Australian aboriginal art (via lancelot47.livejournal.com) SLIDE 8: Marc Chagall, ‘A Wheatfield on a Summer's Afternoon’, 1942 (via Wikiart) SLIDE 9: Brian Cairns, ‘Eggs’ (via briancairns.com) SLIDE 10: ‘La vaquita parda’ (via tierradehojas.blogspot.com.es) SLIDE 11: Fabio Sironi illustration, printed in the 2010 calendar of Italian NGO Amani (via AFRONLINE) SLIDES 1, 12: Yuki Sasameya: ‘Untitled’ (via en.tis-home.com)
  39. 39. Artworks (cont.) SLIDE 13: Nguyen Phan Chanh, 'La Marchand de Riz' ('The Rice Seller'), 1932 SLIDE 14: Abner Graboff illustration, ‘The Hungry Goat’ (via stickersandstuff.blogspot.com.es) SLIDE 15: Animal silhouettes (via Twitter.com) SLIDE 20: Gunnlaugur Scheving (via http://samuel.is) SLIDE 22: ‘Keep Calm and Milk a Cow’ poster (via Etsy) SLIDE 23: ‘More Livestock, More Manure’ poster, Que Binh, Vietnam, 1972 SLIDE 24: ‘Family Farms Produce 70% of the Food Consumed in the World’ poster (via www.foodtank.com) SLIDES 25, 30: Olivia Fraser, ‘Blue Dawn’, 2012 (via bbc.co.uk) SLIDE 26: Artist unknown, Vietnam poster (via animalsvietnam.wordpress.com) SLIDE 27: Kauniste Maatila, ‘Green Farm’; handprinted kitchen linens inspired by 60s & 70s Finnish textiles (via store.mjolk.ca) SLIDES 28, 29: Simi Gauba, ‘Tell-a-tale’ (via tigerprint.typepad.com)
  40. 40. better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.

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