Improving livestock water productivity to help satisfy future human dietary requirements in developing countries Don Peden...
Hungry world ‘must eat less meat’ Opening Stockholm WWW 2004   By Alex Kirby:  BBC News Online environment correspondent  ...
Outline <ul><li>Livestock-water productivity (LWP) assessment framework </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of animal sourced foo...
What is livestock water productivity? <ul><li>Understanding livestock use of water requires a systems approach and suitabl...
In - flow Surface  in-flow  Ground water Rain Ground & soil water recharge Infiltration LWP FRAMEWORK Drinking Beneficial ...
LWP is a function of: <ul><li>Value of many beneficial outputs including nutrients required in human diets plus other bene...
Human nutrition in developing countries: ( A beneficial output) <ul><li>Adults need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about 70g quali...
Consumption & production of meat & milk <ul><li>Rapid growth in demand & production in developing areas. </li></ul><ul><li...
Some essential nutrients available in animal source foods <ul><li>Plant-based alternatives not always available. </li></ul...
Example health impacts of livestock products <ul><li>Child mental development. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened immune syste...
Strategically source animal feeds <ul><li>Water for feed can be 50X drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>African livestock co...
Assess and improve WP & Rain-use efficiency (RUE) for non-grain feed sources >> Variability among production systems high!...
Make more effective use of rangelands unsustainable for crop  Rain water used for feed often has no other productive agric...
Maintain vegetative cover to increase livestock water productivity (North Africa- 200 to 314 mm annual ppt) <ul><li>Reduce...
Use byproducts from irrigated crops to support animal industry (e.g. Kenana & Gezira, Sudan) <ul><li>Increased returns on ...
Enhance animal productivity ( Problem ) <ul><li>Livestock productivity < 50% of genetic potential. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M...
Opportunities to enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Veteri...
Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Avoid degradation of water in excess of animals’ needs. </li...
Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources  (cont’d) <ul><li>Grazing land: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish comm...
Drinking water – A special issue (Neither depleted water nor part of LWP calculation) <ul><li>Vital to survival and produc...
Case 1: Mixed rainfed farming in Blue Nile (Preliminary application of new LWP assessment model) <ul><li>Mostly rainfed LW...
Case 2: Household water harvesting  (SG2000)   <ul><li>Integration of livestock and crops: </li></ul>Butter: added value >...
Concluding remarks <ul><li>Developing countries need animal source foods. </li></ul><ul><li>LWP compares favourable with c...
THANK YOU <ul><li>REFERENCES USED ARE AVAILABLE </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Improving livestock water productivity to help satisfy future human dietary requirements in developing countries

1,132 views

Published on

A presentation prepared by Don Peden, Mario Herrero, Girma Taddesse and David Molden for the Stockholm World Water Week workshop on Changing Diets and their Implications for Water, Land and Livelihoods, Stockholm, Sweden, August 20-26, 2006.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Improving livestock water productivity to help satisfy future human dietary requirements in developing countries

  1. 1. Improving livestock water productivity to help satisfy future human dietary requirements in developing countries Don Peden, Mario Herrero, Girma Taddesse, and David Molden Invited Paper Stockholm World Water Week 2006 workshop on Changing diets and their implications for water, land and livelihoods 20 to 26 August, Stockholm, Sweden With assistance from Canada’s International Development Research Centre
  2. 2. Hungry world ‘must eat less meat’ Opening Stockholm WWW 2004 By Alex Kirby: BBC News Online environment correspondent Is this the whole story? What about developing countries? Most “hungry” people live in developing countries! What is potential to increase water productivity? World water supplies will not be enough for our descendants to enjoy the sort of diet the West eats now, experts say. The World Water Week (2004) in Stockholm will be told the growth in demand for meat and dairy products is unsustainable. Livestock needs a lot of water
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Livestock-water productivity (LWP) assessment framework </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of animal sourced foods </li></ul><ul><li>Options for improving LWP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed sourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved animal production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable land and water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding thoughts </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is livestock water productivity? <ul><li>Understanding livestock use of water requires a systems approach and suitable analytical framework </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial outputs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein, energy, fat, vitamins A & B12, Fe, Se, Zn, Ca, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal power, manure, wealth savings, hides, skins, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depleted water is water lost from an agricultural system that cannot easily be recovered and re-used. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, existing methodologies inconsistent. </li></ul>LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) ∑ (Depleted water)
  5. 5. In - flow Surface in-flow Ground water Rain Ground & soil water recharge Infiltration LWP FRAMEWORK Drinking Beneficial Animal outputs: Meat, milk, eggs, hides, farm power, manure, wealth savings Evaporation Discharge/flood Contamination, Degradation Trees Grazing land Food crops Feed crops Transpiration Grazing, Feeding, Watering Enhancing Production Genetics, health, nutrition, value added Imported feed Feed Sourcing Range, grains forages,
  6. 6. LWP is a function of: <ul><li>Value of many beneficial outputs including nutrients required in human diets plus other benefits derived from animals. </li></ul><ul><li>?? Opportunity costs of alternate water uses???? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to source feeds with higher water productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to enhance animal productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of appropriate watering and grazing practices that prevent water depletion and degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>>> We need to consider of all 4 factors << </li></ul>
  7. 7. Human nutrition in developing countries: ( A beneficial output) <ul><li>Adults need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about 70g quality protein daily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy, minerals, fat, and micro-nutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein in excess of 70g used as energy source. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal source foods: one option for meeting dietary needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of animal products enables purchase of food. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consumption & production of meat & milk <ul><li>Rapid growth in demand & production in developing areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption will lag for years in SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>SSA will not be self-sufficient in 2020. </li></ul>Developed Developing Sub-Sahara Developed Developing Sub-Sahara Country group Source: Delgado (2003) 267 87 0.5 63 29 3.0 30 10 3.6 Production 210 86 0.7 62 36 3.0 37 12 3.3 Consumption Milk Meat Per capita in 2020 (kg/year) Annual Growth (%)
  9. 9. Some essential nutrients available in animal source foods <ul><li>Plant-based alternatives not always available. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 not readily available from plant sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of Iron higher in meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted soils may limit food quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of water-use efficiency, producing animal source foods may be a priority use of water. </li></ul>YES YES YES NO NO Milk YES YES YES YES YES Meat Vitamin A Vitamin B12 Selenium Zinc Iron Food
  10. 10. Example health impacts of livestock products <ul><li>Child mental development. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased work capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Remedy for anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban over consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban/rural challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Urban population growth to 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban dietary shifts. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Rural diets not adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Rural livelihood option to help feed urban masses. </li></ul>Environmental degradation and poor diets retard development of cognitive & motor skills.
  11. 11. Strategically source animal feeds <ul><li>Water for feed can be 50X drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>African livestock consume little or no grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals rely on grazing & crop residues and crop byproducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Little knowledge about water use for non-grain feeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Procuring feed is a primary livelihood activity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Assess and improve WP & Rain-use efficiency (RUE) for non-grain feed sources >> Variability among production systems high! << ?? High ?? Crop residues & byproducts [ No extra H 2 0 ] 0.1 - 0.5 USA, Med., Austr., Sahel, Central Asia range 0.6 Masai Mara range (Kenya) 1.5 Irrigated alfalfa (Sudan & Wyoming) 4.2 Pennisetum purpureum 7.0 Irrigated forage Sorghum (Sudan) WP or RUE (Kg/m 3 H 2 0) Feed/Forage/rangeland
  13. 13. Make more effective use of rangelands unsustainable for crop Rain water used for feed often has no other productive agricultural potential but ecosystem services may be important. Strictly grazing Mostly grazing Other
  14. 14. Maintain vegetative cover to increase livestock water productivity (North Africa- 200 to 314 mm annual ppt) <ul><li>Reduced infiltration and evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased transpiration and run-off. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal or “moderate” stocking rates maximize sustainable feed intake and animal production. </li></ul>0.13 336 4 Overstocking 0.21 520 7 Heavy 0.43 1040 25 None RUE (kg/m 3 ) Dry matter production (kg/ha) Plant cover (%) Grazing pressure
  15. 15. Use byproducts from irrigated crops to support animal industry (e.g. Kenana & Gezira, Sudan) <ul><li>Increased returns on irrigation investments. </li></ul><ul><li>37% of Gezira farmers’ income comes from livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition for producers and urban population. </li></ul>Khartoum feed market Kenana Dairy Molasses Crop residues Nile irrigation + +
  16. 16. Enhance animal productivity ( Problem ) <ul><li>Livestock productivity < 50% of genetic potential. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk production: often less than 2 L/day/cow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substandard quality of animal products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High mortality and morbidity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herd off-take very low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low reproductive rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suboptimal breeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal weight gains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor market access. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Opportunities to enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary health care. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal genetic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Value-added animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing, watering and housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wealth savings </li></ul><ul><li>Drought risk insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>But apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal/water demand management approach. </li></ul>>> Implies integration of traditional animals sciences into agricultural water development<< Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  18. 18. Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Avoid degradation of water in excess of animals’ needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit conversion of range to annual croplands to. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce run-off, erosion, sedimentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain transpiration, infiltration, soil fertility & vegetative cover. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrict uncontrolled animal access to water bodies to avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to human health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of riparian & aquatic habitats. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources (cont’d) <ul><li>Grazing land: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish community-based management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep riparian buffer zones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit stocking rates and grazing pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply zero grazing and watering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit expansion of cropping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt conservation agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide quality drinking water for dairy cows. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Drinking water – A special issue (Neither depleted water nor part of LWP calculation) <ul><li>Vital to survival and production - quality important. </li></ul><ul><li>Negligible compared to depleted and degraded H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategically distribute watering points to enable effective use of pasture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide one L for drinking to make effective use of about 100 L or transpired water in grazing areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide cows with water for more milk & less labor. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Case 1: Mixed rainfed farming in Blue Nile (Preliminary application of new LWP assessment model) <ul><li>Mostly rainfed LWP compares favourably with crops produced in household water harvesting systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Even without efforts to increase LWP. </li></ul>Irrigated WH Irrigated WH Irrigated WH Rainfed mixed crop-livestock systems System 0.37 Onion Household 0.47 Green Maize Household 0.73 Onion + tomato Household 0.68 Livestock – multiple species and uses Basin WP (US$/m 3 ) Agricultural product Scale
  22. 22. Case 2: Household water harvesting (SG2000) <ul><li>Integration of livestock and crops: </li></ul>Butter: added value > More milk/drop > More value >Less labour >Better nutrition Income: $150 to $1500 per year Underground tank Market & home consumption Giving drinking H 2 0 Zero grazing & improved cow
  23. 23. Concluding remarks <ul><li>Developing countries need animal source foods. </li></ul><ul><li>LWP compares favourable with crop WP. </li></ul><ul><li>We can at least double LWP by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic sourcing of animal feeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing animal productivity & reducing herd sizes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better management of grazing and watering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic use of drinking water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban & rural areas have different dietary needs. </li></ul><ul><li>We need better integrating water & livestock development to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase LWP & returns on investments in agricultural H 2 0. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfy future dietary requirements. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. THANK YOU <ul><li>REFERENCES USED ARE AVAILABLE </li></ul>

×