Sharing Lessons from Pig Value Chain: South Asia &                 South East Asia                  Rameswar (Ram) Deka   ...
South & South East Asia
Pig Density              Source: FAO, 2006
Pig population & growthSouth East Asia                       South AsiaCountry           Popul. (mil)        Country      ...
Basic ComparisonParticulars                 S0uth East Asia           SouthAsiaPig rearing community       All communities...
Farming size         South East Asia                                South AsiaVietnam/        Smallholders (1-10        In...
Breeds & BreedingParticulars                 SE Asia                           S AsiaIndigenous pigs             Mongcai, ...
Indigenous Pigs    Fig: MongCai pig, Vietnam             Fig: Ban pig, VietnamFig: Indigenous pig, Laos             Fig: I...
Herd TypeParticulars                SE Asia                   S AsiaBreeding                   25%                       1...
Feeds & FeedingParticulars                    SE Asia                    S AsiaMajor ingredients              Maize, rice ...
HousingFig: Pig sty , Vietnam               Fig: Pig sty, LaosFig: Pig sty, Cambodia             Fig: Pig sty, North East ...
Diseases & PreventionParticulars        SE Asia                       S AsiaMajor diseases     PRRS,                      ...
MarketsParticuars               SE Asia                     S AsiaPork consumers           Almost all communities      Onl...
Markets    Fig: Pig transported by motorbike         Fig: Pork market, Hanoi                                           Fig...
Trend of consumption & growthParticulars               SE Asia                   S AsiaIncreased in consumption Vietnam, T...
Food Safety &ZoonosisParticulars                    SE Asia                    S AsiaDisease animal sold            Yes   ...
Main Lessons that S Asia can lean from               SE Asia Better feeding through cultivation of food-feed crops &    i...
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Sharing lessons from pig value chains: South Asia and South East Asia

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Presented by Ram Deka at the Managing Risks in Emerging Pork Markets: An International South – South Symposium, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, 23-25 April 2012.

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Sharing lessons from pig value chains: South Asia and South East Asia

  1. 1. Sharing Lessons from Pig Value Chain: South Asia & South East Asia Rameswar (Ram) Deka International Symposium on Managing Risk in Pork Market Hanoi, Vietnam 23rd to 25th April 2012
  2. 2. South & South East Asia
  3. 3. Pig Density Source: FAO, 2006
  4. 4. Pig population & growthSouth East Asia South AsiaCountry Popul. (mil) Country Popul. (mil)Myanmar 4.49 (5.7%) India 13.50 (3.5%)Thailand 6.68 (3.7%) Nepal 0.93 (5.2%)Laos 1.42 (-2.0%) Bhutan 0.04 (-0.1%)Cambodia 2.11 (0.20) Sri Lanka 0.07 (-3.5%)The Philippines 11.65 (4.1%) Bangladesh ?Singapore 0.19 Pakistan ?Vietnam 21.74 (4.9%) Afghanistan Zoo animal ?Indonesia 6.00 (- 4.2%) Maldives ?Malaysia 2.10 (-5.5%) Source: FAO Asia shares 43% of global pig output
  5. 5. Basic ComparisonParticulars S0uth East Asia SouthAsiaPig rearing community All communities except Only few communities fewSocial- cultural value High High(worshiping, sacrificial,gift, fine etc.)Livelihood importance High (20-40% of HH High (20-40% of HH income ) income)Government policy focus High Lowtowards pigIndustrial pig production Yes NoContract farming Yes No(integrator) Pig and pork is most important only in North Eastern part of India in S Asia. The region have 3.8 mil pigs
  6. 6. Farming size South East Asia South AsiaVietnam/ Smallholders (1-10 India Smallholder (1-5Philippines pigs): 75% pigs): 95%/ Thailand/Indonesia/ Medium Medium (5-300 pigs):Malaysia (10-500 pigs): 15% 5% Large (>500): 10% Large (>300): NilLaos/ Smallholders (1-10 Nepal/ Smallholders (1-5Cambodia/ pigs): 85% Bhutan/ pigs): 98%Myanmar Sri Lanka Medium (10-500 Medium (5-300 pigs): pigs): 15% 2% There is lot of variation within & between the countries and classifications are also different
  7. 7. Breeds & BreedingParticulars SE Asia S AsiaIndigenous pigs Mongcai, Ban, short year Doom, Madhuri, Bampudke,(declining rapidly) pig, Moolatetc. Hurra, Dromfak etc. Fatty, high productive Lean, low productExotic pigs (increasing LWY, LB, Landrace, Hampshire, LWY,rapidly in SEA but very Duroc, Berkshire etc. LB, Saddleback, Tamworth,slow growth in SA) (>15% exotic) Landrace, Duroc (< 2%)Cross bred (increasing > 70% pig population >80% of India’s pig populationrapidly)Preferred colour of pigs Preference varies BlackStrategic breeding Not sure Noprogramme atsmallholders levelNatural breeding (fee Popular in the villages Popular in the villagesbased)Artificial Insemination Available in well accessible Available only 2-3 areas areas Characterisation of indigenous breeds of pigs in S & SE Asia is essential
  8. 8. Indigenous Pigs Fig: MongCai pig, Vietnam Fig: Ban pig, VietnamFig: Indigenous pig, Laos Fig: Indigenous (doom) pig, India
  9. 9. Herd TypeParticulars SE Asia S AsiaBreeding 25% 10%Fattening 45% 80%Breeding + Fattening 30% 10% Inadequate availability of good breeding stock is the major challenge for improvement of piggery in S Asia. But in SE Asia, good quality piglets are suppliers by industrial pig farms.
  10. 10. Feeds & FeedingParticulars SE Asia S AsiaMajor ingredients Maize, rice bran, broken Residue of rice bear, rice(smallholders) rice, cassava, sweet bran, wheat bran, potato, legumes, banana kitchen waste, taro, leaf, fish meal, soybean cassava, jungle forages, meal, jungle forages maizeProduction& distribution of High Negligibleconcentrate feedCultivation of food-feed Popular Not popularcrops for feeding pigs.Feed ingredients are mixed Common Common& cookedSmallholders pig feed- low True Truein protein but high inenergyCompetition of pig feed with High Lowhuman food
  11. 11. HousingFig: Pig sty , Vietnam Fig: Pig sty, LaosFig: Pig sty, Cambodia Fig: Pig sty, North East India
  12. 12. Diseases & PreventionParticulars SE Asia S AsiaMajor diseases PRRS, CSF CSF FMD No PRRS FMD Swine PoxMinor diseases Parasitic infestation Parasitic infestation, Swine Dysentery, Piglet anaemia, Erysipelas Piglet Diarrhoea, Swine InfluenzaTreatment 80% households near towns About 60% households near & 30% in villages treat the towns and 10% in village treat pigs the pigTreatment is Mainly by farmers Mainly by farmers themselvesdone themselvesVaccination 30- 90% pigs are vaccinated <2% pigs are vaccinated against against CSF CSFDeworming 30-80% pigs are dewormed 5-20% pigs are dewormed PRRS is the emerging threat for the pig population of South Asia
  13. 13. MarketsParticuars SE Asia S AsiaPork consumers Almost all communities Only certain communitiesTransportation By motorbike By auto van or mini truckmechanismPaperwork for trading High LowPremium price for pork Yes Yesof indigenous pigsOrganised slaughter Available in major cities ScantyinfrastructureMarket demand at the Moderate Highfarm gateMarket efficiency for Low HighsmallholdersMarket challenges for High Lowsmallholders
  14. 14. Markets Fig: Pig transported by motorbike Fig: Pork market, Hanoi Fig: Pork market, Dimapur, IndiaFig: Pork market, Northern Vietnam
  15. 15. Trend of consumption & growthParticulars SE Asia S AsiaIncreased in consumption Vietnam, Thailand, The India, Nepal, Bhutanof pork Philippines, Cambodia & Myanmar ( growth 1.4- 5.0% year)Decreased in Indonesia, Malaysia & Sri Lankaconsumption of pork LaosMajor exporter Vietnam, Thailand & -(Informal border trade) IndonesiaMajor importer The Philippines & - (Informal border trade) MalaysiaPer capita consumption 6-15 kgs/ year 0.76 kg/year in India, 8.37 kg/year in Nagaland (NE India)
  16. 16. Food Safety &ZoonosisParticulars SE Asia S AsiaDisease animal sold Yes YesUse of soap, detergents, Poor (better in city) Poorantiseptic, hot water, cleandress during retailingTransportation of carcass Without covering Without coveringUnsafe coliform count Above acceptable level Above acceptable level (82% in Vietnam) (80% in Nagaland)Total plate count Above acceptable level Above acceptable level (50% in Vietnam)Antibiotic residue in pork Yes (20% samples in Nagaland)Consumption of smoked pork ? Common in NE IndiaImportant zoonotic diseases 1. Japanese Encephalitis 1. Japanese Encephalitis 2. Colibacillosis 2. Cysticercosis 3. Leptospirosis 3. Taeniasis
  17. 17. Main Lessons that S Asia can lean from SE Asia Better feeding through cultivation of food-feed crops & incorporation of concentrates. Popularisation of vaccination &deworming programme among smallholders. Encouraging private investment for pig breeding & feed milling. Govt. stimulation package & policy environment for the investors. Smallholders pig transportation mechanism. Better hygiene prevails in pork retailing at major urban centers.
  18. 18. Thanks for your Patience

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