Pig population & growthSouth East Asia South AsiaCountry Popul. (mil) Country Popul. (mil)Myanmar 4.49 (5.7%) India 13.50 (3.5%)Thailand 6.68 (3.7%) Nepal 0.93 (5.2%)Laos 1.42 (-2.0%) Bhutan 0.04 (-0.1%)Cambodia 2.11 (0.20) Sri Lanka 0.07 (-3.5%)The Philippines 11.65 (4.1%) Bangladesh ?Singapore 0.19 Pakistan ?Vietnam 21.74 (4.9%) Afghanistan Zoo animal ?Indonesia 6.00 (- 4.2%) Maldives ?Malaysia 2.10 (-5.5%) Source: FAO Asia shares 43% of global pig output
Basic ComparisonParticulars S0uth East Asia SouthAsiaPig rearing community All communities except Only few communities fewSocial- cultural value High High(worshiping, sacrificial,gift, fine etc.)Livelihood importance High (20-40% of HH High (20-40% of HH income ) income)Government policy focus High Lowtowards pigIndustrial pig production Yes NoContract farming Yes No(integrator) Pig and pork is most important only in North Eastern part of India in S Asia. The region have 3.8 mil pigs
Farming size South East Asia South AsiaVietnam/ Smallholders (1-10 India Smallholder (1-5Philippines pigs): 75% pigs): 95%/ Thailand/Indonesia/ Medium Medium (5-300 pigs):Malaysia (10-500 pigs): 15% 5% Large (>500): 10% Large (>300): NilLaos/ Smallholders (1-10 Nepal/ Smallholders (1-5Cambodia/ pigs): 85% Bhutan/ pigs): 98%Myanmar Sri Lanka Medium (10-500 Medium (5-300 pigs): pigs): 15% 2% There is lot of variation within & between the countries and classifications are also different
Breeds & BreedingParticulars SE Asia S AsiaIndigenous pigs Mongcai, Ban, short year Doom, Madhuri, Bampudke,(declining rapidly) pig, Moolatetc. Hurra, Dromfak etc. Fatty, high productive Lean, low productExotic pigs (increasing LWY, LB, Landrace, Hampshire, LWY,rapidly in SEA but very Duroc, Berkshire etc. LB, Saddleback, Tamworth,slow growth in SA) (>15% exotic) Landrace, Duroc (< 2%)Cross bred (increasing > 70% pig population >80% of India’s pig populationrapidly)Preferred colour of pigs Preference varies BlackStrategic breeding Not sure Noprogramme atsmallholders levelNatural breeding (fee Popular in the villages Popular in the villagesbased)Artificial Insemination Available in well accessible Available only 2-3 areas areas Characterisation of indigenous breeds of pigs in S & SE Asia is essential
Indigenous Pigs Fig: MongCai pig, Vietnam Fig: Ban pig, VietnamFig: Indigenous pig, Laos Fig: Indigenous (doom) pig, India
Herd TypeParticulars SE Asia S AsiaBreeding 25% 10%Fattening 45% 80%Breeding + Fattening 30% 10% Inadequate availability of good breeding stock is the major challenge for improvement of piggery in S Asia. But in SE Asia, good quality piglets are suppliers by industrial pig farms.
Feeds & FeedingParticulars SE Asia S AsiaMajor ingredients Maize, rice bran, broken Residue of rice bear, rice(smallholders) rice, cassava, sweet bran, wheat bran, potato, legumes, banana kitchen waste, taro, leaf, fish meal, soybean cassava, jungle forages, meal, jungle forages maizeProduction& distribution of High Negligibleconcentrate feedCultivation of food-feed Popular Not popularcrops for feeding pigs.Feed ingredients are mixed Common Common& cookedSmallholders pig feed- low True Truein protein but high inenergyCompetition of pig feed with High Lowhuman food
HousingFig: Pig sty , Vietnam Fig: Pig sty, LaosFig: Pig sty, Cambodia Fig: Pig sty, North East India
Diseases & PreventionParticulars SE Asia S AsiaMajor diseases PRRS, CSF CSF FMD No PRRS FMD Swine PoxMinor diseases Parasitic infestation Parasitic infestation, Swine Dysentery, Piglet anaemia, Erysipelas Piglet Diarrhoea, Swine InfluenzaTreatment 80% households near towns About 60% households near & 30% in villages treat the towns and 10% in village treat pigs the pigTreatment is Mainly by farmers Mainly by farmers themselvesdone themselvesVaccination 30- 90% pigs are vaccinated <2% pigs are vaccinated against against CSF CSFDeworming 30-80% pigs are dewormed 5-20% pigs are dewormed PRRS is the emerging threat for the pig population of South Asia
MarketsParticuars SE Asia S AsiaPork consumers Almost all communities Only certain communitiesTransportation By motorbike By auto van or mini truckmechanismPaperwork for trading High LowPremium price for pork Yes Yesof indigenous pigsOrganised slaughter Available in major cities ScantyinfrastructureMarket demand at the Moderate Highfarm gateMarket efficiency for Low HighsmallholdersMarket challenges for High Lowsmallholders
Markets Fig: Pig transported by motorbike Fig: Pork market, Hanoi Fig: Pork market, Dimapur, IndiaFig: Pork market, Northern Vietnam
Trend of consumption & growthParticulars SE Asia S AsiaIncreased in consumption Vietnam, Thailand, The India, Nepal, Bhutanof pork Philippines, Cambodia & Myanmar ( growth 1.4- 5.0% year)Decreased in Indonesia, Malaysia & Sri Lankaconsumption of pork LaosMajor exporter Vietnam, Thailand & -(Informal border trade) IndonesiaMajor importer The Philippines & - (Informal border trade) MalaysiaPer capita consumption 6-15 kgs/ year 0.76 kg/year in India, 8.37 kg/year in Nagaland (NE India)
Food Safety &ZoonosisParticulars SE Asia S AsiaDisease animal sold Yes YesUse of soap, detergents, Poor (better in city) Poorantiseptic, hot water, cleandress during retailingTransportation of carcass Without covering Without coveringUnsafe coliform count Above acceptable level Above acceptable level (82% in Vietnam) (80% in Nagaland)Total plate count Above acceptable level Above acceptable level (50% in Vietnam)Antibiotic residue in pork Yes (20% samples in Nagaland)Consumption of smoked pork ? Common in NE IndiaImportant zoonotic diseases 1. Japanese Encephalitis 1. Japanese Encephalitis 2. Colibacillosis 2. Cysticercosis 3. Leptospirosis 3. Taeniasis
Main Lessons that S Asia can lean from SE Asia Better feeding through cultivation of food-feed crops & incorporation of concentrates. Popularisation of vaccination &deworming programme among smallholders. Encouraging private investment for pig breeding & feed milling. Govt. stimulation package & policy environment for the investors. Smallholders pig transportation mechanism. Better hygiene prevails in pork retailing at major urban centers.