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Pork consumption habits and occurrence of trichinellosis and cysticercosis in communities of southern Laos

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Presentation by Vannaphone Putthana, Thipphakone Lacksivy, Dethaloun Meunsen, Amphone Keosengthong, Khao Keonam, Palamy Changleuxai, Phongsamouth Suthammavong, Hung Nguyen-Viet and Fred Unger at the 13th SafePork Conference, Berlin, Germany, 26–29 August 2019.

Published in: Science
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Pork consumption habits and occurrence of trichinellosis and cysticercosis in communities of southern Laos

  1. 1. Pork consumption habits and occurrence of Trichinelloses and Cysticercoses in communities of Southern Laos Vannaphone Putthana1, Thipphakone Lacksivy1, Dethaloun Meunsen1, Amphone Keosengthong1, Khao Keonam1, Palamy Changleuxai1, Phongsamouth Suthammavong1, Hung Viet Nguyen2, Fred Unger2 1 National University of Laos, Faculty of Agriculture, Vet Med Department, Nabong, Laos 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam
  2. 2. Introduction • Swine production: Free range, backyard and small scale farms • Parasitic pork borne diseases (PPBD) are a major public health concern and require One health management • Cysticercosis and Trichinellosis, both are top ten PFBD and expected to be endemic in Laos • This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cysticercoses and Trichinelloses in pigs and humans and related risk factors in communities of Champasak province, Laos.
  3. 3. Serological sampling in humans and pigs Study area Province: Champasak District: Soukhomma, Pathoumphone, Khong Villages: 14 Survey design and sampling strategy Cross sectional study Pigs: Focus on communities with native pigs Humans: Volunteers, army and pig‘s owners Implementation: Interdiciplinary research team (e.g. NUoL, MOH, DLF, MoD MoIC,MoSE) Cross-sectoral: 6 ministries, community members and workers Location and Methods
  4. 4. Methods (cont.) • Field survey interviews for knowledge on PPBD and pork consumption behavior • Questionnaire (including likert) and checklist: demographics, farm management & potential risk factors and perception on PFBD • Sampling: • Pigs: serum samples • Human: serum and fecal samples • Test applied • Pigs: PrioCHECK™ Porcine Trichinella AB • Humans: IBL AG ELISA, Germany for Trichinella and apDIA AB ELISA (Cysticercoses) • Kato technique
  5. 5. Results and discussion Seroprevalence of Trichinella for human Name of district Total sample positive prevalence Soukhouma 187 12 6.42 Patoumphone 121 27 22.31 Khong 117 32 27.35 Total 425 71 16.71 Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis for human Name of district Total sample positive Prevalence Soukhouma 187 6 3.21 Patoumphone 121 8 3.21 Khong 95 0 3.21 403 14 3.47 Trichinella by gender: 13.9% (33/238) males and 20.3% (38/187) females Cysticercoses by gender: 2.3% (5/216) males and 4.8% (9/187) females
  6. 6. Results and discussion (cont.) Name of district Total sample Positive Prevalence Soukhouma 79 19 24.05% Patoumphone 101 19 18.81% Khong 90 39 43.33% Total 270 77 28.51% Seroprevalence of Trichinella for pigs Management system Total sample Positive Prevalence free range 2 0 0% fence/garden 88 23 26.13% Rope 180 54 30% Total 270 77 28.51% Prevalence of Trichinella for farm management pig
  7. 7. Results and discussion (cont.) Name of district Total sample Positive Prevalence (%) 2 to < 6 months 192 49 25.5 > 6 months 78 28 35.9 Total 270 77 28.5 Prevalence of Trichinella and age of pigs 0 50 100 150 200 250 Total sample Positive Prevalence (%) < 6 monhs > 6 month
  8. 8. Results and discussion (cont.) Knowledge and perception related to PFBD 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% keeping pig in fenced area can reduce disease healthy pig can't transmit diseases to humans worm in pigs are normal and don't need the treatment Perception of pig of pig owners on pig management Fully agree agree not sure disagree fully disagree • Very limited knowledge on cause and prevention • Perception that worms are not harmful for humans
  9. 9. Results and discussion (Cont.) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% worm in humans are normal and don't need the treatment eating raw or undercook pork can harm human heath I like to eat raw or undercooked pork as it is delicious Perception of pig owner on risky behaviour for PFBD Fully agree agree not sure disagree fully disagree
  10. 10. Results and discussion (cont.) Pork consumption behavior 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Not at all Daily Weekly Monthly Less frequent Consumption of raw, undercooked, fermented pork by District Khong Pathoumphone Soukhomma
  11. 11. What to do? The project implemented under a multi-institutional platform (Department level) from Vientiane (capital) of the former ComAcross project • 6 Ministries involved focusing on One Health in practice ! • Integrate pig borne parasitoses in health campaigns targeting O.V. (Human health sector lead implemenation) • Maintained after project ends, bi-annual meetings • Lao One Health University Network (LAOHUN) estrabished • Creating National One health committee (Ministry level)
  12. 12. Conclusions 1. Trichinellosis and Cysticercosis present in the study area and can pose a public health risk to pork eaters 2. Farmers and villagers have limited knowledge on both PPBD and miss-perception on parasite aspects 3. Free range, semi-free range backyard systems, eating raw pork/pork products are risk factors for health 4. Joint one-health community awareness campaigns are needed led by cross-sectoral team
  13. 13. Acknowledgement NUoL research team members Former ComAcross research, in particular Aurelie Binot Community members Members of multi-institutional platform Local authorities

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