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Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces of Northern Vietnam

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Presentation by Fred Unger at the 13th SafePork Conference, Berlin, Germany, 26-29 August 2019.

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Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces of Northern Vietnam

  1. 1. Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces of Northern Vietnam Fred Unger International Livestock Research Institute
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Material and methods • Results • Discussions and conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction - pork and food safety in Vietnam Pork is an important component of the Vietnamese diet • The most widely consumed meat: 29.1Kg/person • >80% comes from very small or small farms • 76% of pigs are processed in small slaughtering • Preference for fresh “warm” pork supplied in traditional markets (>80% of all pork marketed) Food safety among the most pressing issues for people in Vietnam, more important than education or health care Food exports relatively well managed but deficits in domestic markets
  4. 4. Pork safety assessments and pathways towards safer pork PigRISK (2012-2017) http://pigrisk.ilriwikis.org SAFEPork (ongoing) Research questions Is pork safe in Vietnam? Methods: Quantitative and qualitative risk assessment Assess cost of food borne diseases (FBD) (hospitalisation) Cross-contamination Salmonella (household) • Interdisciplinary team • Risk based approach • Farm to fork • Food safety hazards: – Biological and chemical Research questions What are faesable options for safer Pork? Methods: Food safety (FS) performance of value chain FS interventions Risk communication
  5. 5. Results from risk assessment under Pig RISK Microbial Risk assessment: Salmonella contamination started at farm and increased along the pork chain (farm – slaughter – market) mainly related to poor hygienic practices 44 to 83% of pork across different retail contaminated with Salmonella Misperception towards risk – public most concerned on chemical hazards but major health risk related to microbiological hazards Risk for pork consumer: 1 – 2 person out of 10 (17%) estimated to suffer Salmonella caused food borne diseaes annually Chemical risk assessment: Risk due to chemical hazards is low (heavy metals, grow promoters and antibiotics) Hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhoea per treatment episode: USD 107 Is pork safe? SAFE Pork: Focus on food safety interventions along pork value chains
  6. 6. SAFE Pork Food safety performance of key pork supply chains Method: Standardised food safety performance tool (KAP, trust, hazard sampling) Focus group discussions (11), key informant interviews (543) & biological sampling (705) Traditional/ wet market (all sites) Street food, Hanoi Canteens, Hanoi „Boutique“ food chains, niche but emerging, Hanoi Supermarket/ convienient stores, Hanoi Native pigs, niche market, Hoa Binh, „safe by nature“, prime price Selection criteria for value chains: contribution to pork supply, novel approaches, scalability, local support, complementary to other initiative or joint project sites
  7. 7. SAFE Pork Food safety performance of key pork supply chains - results Traditional/ wet market (all sites) Street food, Hanoi Canteens, Hanoi Boutique food chains, niche but emerging, Hanoi Supermarket/ convienient stores, Hanoi Native pigs, niche market, Hoa Binh Results: - Poor food safety outcomes (Salmonella) and hygienic deficits across all retail types - Trust in food safety was higher in rural areas and at the producer end than in urban areas and at the consumer end of the value chain - Consumers trusted television and local radio more than social media for food safety information - VC actors relate “Safe Pork” to not using antibiotics/growth promoters and less to poor hygiene
  8. 8. SAFE Pork – interventions Challenges for improving food safety including pork • Various approaches to improving safety had been tried, largely based on systems used in developed countries e.g.: – GAHP (Good animal husbandry practices), traceability, certification, modernising retail etc.) • However, safe meat production has not yet take a significant share of pork retail in Vietnam (e.g. VietGAHP < 5%) • Key constraints to uptake include: – high cost of adoption, lack of benefits from changing behaviour • To overcome these constraints our focus will be on: – gradual improvements to the food system in place, rather than introduction of a new system – rather simple interventions – incentive-based
  9. 9. Pilot intervention (previous Pig Risk project) The pilot trial also demonstrated that technical solutions must go along with behaviour change of butchers. The improvement in hygiene (using grid versus floor) was indicated by lower coliform load (p = 0.002) on the carcass surface compared to the control.
  10. 10. 10 FBD- a new priority – most from livestock Millions DALYs lost per year (global) Safe PORK Approach used for interventions • Selection of suitable value chains and intervention points – Pig RISK results and Food safety performance assessment (Safe PORK) – Value chain assessment • Participatory diagnostic – With local authorties and trageted VC actors using meetings, FGD, Key informant interviews and system effect modelling (barriers and enablers for interventions) • Supporting research – Behaviour nudges, system effect & lab trials • Pilot trials • Full implementation including assessment
  11. 11. Safe PORK – innovations/interventions Simple, rapid tests that detect contaminated food Could be used directly by retailers or consumer to have direct verification of safety Reduce use of antimicrobial (in collaboration with private sector), replacement of antimicrobials by pro-biotics Reduce contamination of pork Portable ozone machines to plug into water supply 2 slaughterhouses, Hanoi and Hung Yen (start Sep 19) Avoid floor slaughter (grid & elevated table) Animal welfare Very low perception of butchers & consumers Entry point: new law of livestock includes chapter on animal welfare tendency to consider welfare at farm and meat quality issues
  12. 12. Safe PORK – interventions • Retailer package — Tailored package: antimicrobial cutting boards, cotton cloths, frequent W&D — Training • Supporting lab trials ― Test of antimicrobial efficacy of five types of cutting boards shows promising results for two of five cutting boards • Increasing transparency and traceability in food system 24 hour on farm, slaughter (?), branding and certification, done with private sector • Training (techinal & risk communication)
  13. 13. SAFE Pork - innovations • Assessment of the potential to use nudges for improved food safety behaviour and practice in the pork value chain • Risk communication  Media, risk assessors, value chain actors – training & materials  Needs assessment results: Basic RC applicable to daily work. Most suggested tools: training course and field visits • Consumer:  Awareness campaigns  Reduce cross-contamination
  14. 14. 14 FBD- a new priority – most from livestock Millions DALYs lost per year (global) Safe PORK Discussion and conclusions From assessments: • Pork is not safe – PH risk is considerable • Modern retail not safer than traditional retail • Microbiological hazards are most important Pathways towards safer pork: • Government efforts to improve food safety need to include all retail types - the informal sector has been relatively ignored. • Techincal innovations require also practice change and incentives • Risk communication messages must be tailored to the audience and use most trusted channels Challenges: • African swine fever
  15. 15. Safer pork can be achieved but technical solutions need to be: • Evidence based • Identified and implemented in a strong participatory process • Incentivized • Rather simple & cost - effective • Innovative • Scalable Overall conclusions – Vietnamese context
  16. 16. better lives through livestock ilri.org This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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