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Antimicrobial resistance and the global livestock sector


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Presentation by Timothy Robinson, Delia Grace and Eric Fèvre during the visit of the UK Chief Scientific Adviser Sir Mark Walport to ILRI Nairobi, 15 July 2015.

Published in: Science

Antimicrobial resistance and the global livestock sector

  1. 1. Antimicrobial resistance and the global livestock sector Visit by Sir Mark Walport to ILRI, 15 July 2015 Timothy Robinson, Delia Grace, Eric Fèvre
  2. 2. Antimicrobial resistance • AMR infections currently claim at least 50,000 lives each year across Europe and the USA alone ….. with many hundreds of thousands more dying in other areas of the world • In 15 European countries more than 10% of bloodstream Staphylococcus aureus infections are caused by methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) ….. closer to 50% in several of these Source: O’Neill (2014) The O’Neill Report (2014)
  3. 3. Sources of antimicrobial resistance Source: P. Huey (Science) • Antimicrobial (ab)use in medicine • Intensive livestock and aquaculture • growth promotion • prophylaxis and metaphylaxis • Therapeutic use • Natural phenomenon in environment Aquaculture growth 1950-2010
  4. 4. Antimicrobial use in livestock • Total consumption in the livestock sector in 2010 estimated at 63,151 tons • Global antimicrobial consumption will rise by 67% by 2030 • It will nearly double in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries
  5. 5. Source: Gilbert et al. (in press) Modelling intensification
  6. 6. Chicken systems Extensive chicken production Intensive chicken production Source: Gilbert et al. (in press)
  7. 7. Antimicrobial resistance Source: Van Boeckel et al. (2015) Global antimicrobial consumption in livestock (mg per 10km pixel)
  8. 8. Source: Gilbert et al. (in press) 2010 Intensification trajectories
  9. 9. Source: Gilbert et al. (in press) 2030 Intensification trajectories
  10. 10. Source: Gilbert et al. (under review) 2050 Intensification trajectories
  11. 11. Antimicrobial resistance • In USA 80% of antimicrobial sales are in the agricultural sector • China’s livestock industry by itself could soon be consuming almost one third of world’s available antibiotics. • Review for DFID by Delia Grace indicates these to be considerable underestimates in some developing countries. What contribution does agriculture make to AMR in human medicine ?
  12. 12. Antimicrobial resistance • The European Union banned the use of antibiotics to boost animals' growth in 2006 • There is a ‘voluntary’ ban in the USA …… Chick-fil-A, McDonalds and Costco • Very difficult to regulate in the developing and emerging economies ➜ Strengthen the evidence base linking agricultural use to AMR in the medical sector ➜ Concerted action – multi-stakeholder platforms ➜ Appropriate approaches in different settings – poor countries may not have the ‘resilience’ or ‘capacity’ of Europe in withstanding a blanket ban, for example ➜ This is a global issue and calls for a coordinated, global response
  13. 13. Project coordination 1. Estimating antimicrobial consumption in agriculture 2. Biological analysis of transmission pathways 4. Action research on reducing antimicrobial use in agriculture 5. Economic and policy analysis of interventions 3. Scenario modelling and information management 6. Realising practice change in antimicrobial use in agriculture Multi-partner initiative
  14. 14. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock