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Determination of risk factors contributing to microbial
contamination in milk and identification of presence of
selected p...
The sale of unpasteurized milk
is a common practice in Tanzania
Dairy industry in Tanzania is also
characterized by informal markets

Milk is predisposed to bacterial contamination that ...
Objective
To assess milk handling practices,
bacterial contamination and determine
selected milk borne zoonotic pathogens
...
Milk sample collection

1

166 milk samples were collected from farmers, vendors,
restaurants/kiosks, milk collection cent...
Laboratory sample analysis

Microbial isolation: total and coliform plate counts
Laboratory sample analysis
Polymerase chain reaction:
Escherichia coli O157:H7
(O157-3 and O157-4)

Brucella abortus
(BRU ...
Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7
M

600 bp
500 bp

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L
Detection of B. abortus: 42% positive

600 bp
500 bp
General practices during milking storage and delivery
Variable
Sources of water

Milking practices

Containers used for mi...
Total plate counts and coliform plate counts
Total plate counts and coliform plate counts
Variable

Observatio
ns

Mean
(log10
cfu/ml)

Std. Dev
(log10)

Min

Max

Tot...
Conlusions
 Unhygienic practices at milking and selling
places contributes to increase in microbial
contaminations
 Milk...
Recommendations
• Veterinary/extension services should be
provided to livestock farmers on proper handling
of milk
• Consu...
Acknowledgements
ASANTE SANA
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Determination of risk factors contributing to microbial contamination in milk and identification of presence of selected pathogenic bacteria along dairy value chain in Tanga

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Presentation by Fortunate Shija, Hezron Nonga, Lusato R Kurwijila, Kristina Roesel, Delia Grace and Gerald Misinzo at the 31st Tanzania Veterinary Association scientific conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 3-5 December 2013.

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Determination of risk factors contributing to microbial contamination in milk and identification of presence of selected pathogenic bacteria along dairy value chain in Tanga

  1. 1. Determination of risk factors contributing to microbial contamination in milk and identification of presence of selected pathogenic bacteria along the dairy value chain in Tanzania Fortunate Shija, Hezron Nonga, Lusato R. Kurwijila, Kristina Roesel, Delia Grace and Gerald Misinzo Presented at the 31st Tanzania Veterinary Association scientific conference Arusha, Tanzania, 3-5 December 2013
  2. 2. The sale of unpasteurized milk is a common practice in Tanzania
  3. 3. Dairy industry in Tanzania is also characterized by informal markets Milk is predisposed to bacterial contamination that may cause spoilage and zoonotic diseases
  4. 4. Objective To assess milk handling practices, bacterial contamination and determine selected milk borne zoonotic pathogens along the dairy value chain in Lushoto and Handeni districts of Tanga region
  5. 5. Milk sample collection 1 166 milk samples were collected from farmers, vendors, restaurants/kiosks, milk collection centers and consumers
  6. 6. Laboratory sample analysis Microbial isolation: total and coliform plate counts
  7. 7. Laboratory sample analysis Polymerase chain reaction: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157-3 and O157-4) Brucella abortus (BRU P5 and BRU P8 )
  8. 8. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 M 600 bp 500 bp A B C D E F G H I J K L
  9. 9. Detection of B. abortus: 42% positive 600 bp 500 bp
  10. 10. General practices during milking storage and delivery Variable Sources of water Milking practices Containers used for milk storage Containers used for delivery/transportation Means of delivery Category Tap Wells Dams and/or streams Cleaning animal shed before milking Wash hands before milking Wash cow's teats before milking Wash hands after milking wide necked aluminum vessel Wide necked plastic vessel Used water and oil bottles Cooking pan "sufuria" wide necked aluminum vessel Wide necked plastick vessel Used water and oil bottles Cooking pan "sufuria" Others e.g traditional pots On foot By bicycle By motorcycle No. (%) farmers respondents 26 (40.0) 21 (32.3) 19 (29.3) 28 (43.1) 46 (70.7) 41 (63.1) 47 (72.3) 2 (03.1) 56 (86.1) 6 (09.2) 1 (01.5) 0 (0.0) 38 (58.5) 8 (12.3) 3 (4.6) 16 (24.6) 37 (56.9) 9 (13.8) 3 (4.6)
  11. 11. Total plate counts and coliform plate counts
  12. 12. Total plate counts and coliform plate counts Variable Observatio ns Mean (log10 cfu/ml) Std. Dev (log10) Min Max Total Plate Count Farmers 21 5.3 5.4 3.3 5.8 Vendors 5 5.8 5.7 4.6 6.1 Restaurants 7 0 5.3 Farmers 22 4.8 4.9 2.5 5.5 Vendors 4 4.8 5.1 3.3 5.4 Restaurants 7 3.6 3.9 0 4.3 4.9 4.9 Coliform plate count
  13. 13. Conlusions  Unhygienic practices at milking and selling places contributes to increase in microbial contaminations  Milk is highly contaminated with coliforms  The presence of B. abortus but not Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk samples was confirmed
  14. 14. Recommendations • Veterinary/extension services should be provided to livestock farmers on proper handling of milk • Consumer practices, such as milk boiling should be further encouraged • Further study to relate these findings with human brucellosis in Lushoto and Handeni should be carried out
  15. 15. Acknowledgements
  16. 16. ASANTE SANA

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