Risk Factors for Brucella Sero-positivity in
Cattle, Goats and Humans in Mbarara,
Uganda
Dr. Edward Ssekawojwa BVM, MVPM
e...
Presentation Outline
• Background
• Methods and Materials
• Results
• Recommendations
Background
• Mbarara District is
one of the most
important livestock
producing areas in
Uganda.
• Different livestock
prod...
Livestock Production Systems
29th - 31st/01/2013
An Integrated Approach to Controlling
Brucellosis in Africa
4
Pastoral Ag...
Materials and Methods
• Cross Sectional Survey: February to September 2005.
• Multistage sampling technique for cattle and...
• Sampled areas:
– Pastoral areas –
Nyabushozi County
– Agro-pastoral –
Ibanda and Kashaari
Counties
29th - 31st/01/2013
A...
• Cattle and goats sera were screened with Rose
Bengal and confirmed with cELISA (all supplied
by Veterinary Laboratory Ag...
Results
• Four percent (95% CI , 3.1% – 5.1%) and 7% (95%
CI, 5.6% - 9.2%) of individual cattle and goats
respectively wer...
• Host level risk factors for cattle included:
– Age
– Sex
– Parity
– Breed
Abortion was strongly linked with Brucella ser...
Human Results
Distribution of hypothesized risk factors by District.
_____________________________________________________...
Individual level seroprevalence based on
RBT, STAT, cELISA and STAT+cELISA, by
District
Area No Sampled Seroprevalence %, ...
• Consumption of
un-boiled milk
was singnificantly
(p>0.001)
associated with
sero-posivitity in
Mbarara District
29th - 31...
Recommendations
• Address the challenges facing the pastoral
production system; vis –a- viz herd sizes,
rampant movements,...
Acknowledgement
• My Supervisors; Prof Nasinyama G, Prof Opuda-Asibo J, Dr. Grimaud P.
• Mbarara District Veterinary Offic...
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
29th - 31st/01/2013
An Integrated Approach to Controlling
Brucellosis in Africa
15
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Risk factors for Brucella sero-positivity in cattle, goats and humans in Mbarara, Uganda

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Presented by Edward Ssekawojwa at a workshop on an integrated approach to controlling brucellosis in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 29-31 January 2013.

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Risk factors for Brucella sero-positivity in cattle, goats and humans in Mbarara, Uganda

  1. 1. Risk Factors for Brucella Sero-positivity in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Mbarara, Uganda Dr. Edward Ssekawojwa BVM, MVPM edsseka@yahoo.com Workshop: An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa, Addis Ababa, 29- 31 January 2013
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Background • Methods and Materials • Results • Recommendations
  3. 3. Background • Mbarara District is one of the most important livestock producing areas in Uganda. • Different livestock production systems are practiced in the same district. • Brucellosis is a major socio-economic threat 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 3
  4. 4. Livestock Production Systems 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 4 Pastoral Agro-pastoral
  5. 5. Materials and Methods • Cross Sectional Survey: February to September 2005. • Multistage sampling technique for cattle and goats. • Serum collected from 1535 cattle and 812 goats from 98 farms. • 161 humans randomly selected from Brucella positive farms and 168 individuals attending HIV CTC in Kampala were included in the study. • Data on hypothesized risk factors was collected using standard structured questionnaires and individual animal data sheets. 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 5
  6. 6. • Sampled areas: – Pastoral areas – Nyabushozi County – Agro-pastoral – Ibanda and Kashaari Counties 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 6
  7. 7. • Cattle and goats sera were screened with Rose Bengal and confirmed with cELISA (all supplied by Veterinary Laboratory Agency, UK) • Human sera was tested using Plate Agglutination Test (RBT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and cELISA. • Raw data was stored in MS Access and analyzed with SPSS 12.0 for Windows and additional modeling done using SAS IML macro (SAS Institute Inc., version 6 1985) 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 7
  8. 8. Results • Four percent (95% CI , 3.1% – 5.1%) and 7% (95% CI, 5.6% - 9.2%) of individual cattle and goats respectively were sero-positive. • Sero-positive cattle and goats were distributed in 21% (95%CI, 12.9% - 29.3%) and 20% (95%CI, 9.9% - 30%) cattle and goats herds respectively. • In cattle, environmental risk factors included; Pastoral Livestock Production System (p<0.001,OR = 18.5), herd size, Contact with wild life and water and / or pasture scarcity 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 8
  9. 9. • Host level risk factors for cattle included: – Age – Sex – Parity – Breed Abortion was strongly linked with Brucella sero- positivity both in cattle (OR=5.9) and goats (OR= 5.5). 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 9
  10. 10. Human Results Distribution of hypothesized risk factors by District. ________________________________________________________________________ Variable Levels Kampala Mbarara Overall %(n) %(n) %(n) Sex Female 38.7(65) 36(58) 37.4(123) Male 61.3(103) 64(103) 62.6(206) Consumption of un-boiled milk Yes 16.7(28) 37.9(55) 26.5(83) No 83.3(140) 62(90) 73.5(230) Contact with animals Yes 17.3(29) 93.2(150) 54.4(179) No 82.7(139) 6.8(11) 45.6(150) History of brucellosis- like symptoms 12months preceding study Yes 88.7(149) 71.4(115) 80.2(264) No 8.9(15) 28.6(46) 18.5(61) Human brucellosis awareness Yes 21.4(36) 39.8(64) 30.4(100) No 78.6(132) 60.2(97) 69.6(229) 29th - 31st/01/2013 10
  11. 11. Individual level seroprevalence based on RBT, STAT, cELISA and STAT+cELISA, by District Area No Sampled Seroprevalence %, (n) RBT STAT cELISA STAT/cELISA Mbarara 161 18.0 (29) 7.5 (12) 9.3 (15) 13.0 (21) Kampala 168 12.5 (21) 4.2 (7) 0.6 (1) 4.8 (8) Total 329 15.2 (50) 5.8 (19) 4.9 (16) 8.8 (29) 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 11
  12. 12. • Consumption of un-boiled milk was singnificantly (p>0.001) associated with sero-posivitity in Mbarara District 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 12
  13. 13. Recommendations • Address the challenges facing the pastoral production system; vis –a- viz herd sizes, rampant movements, contact with wildlife. • Discourage consumption of raw milk for humans – behavioral change? • Public awareness and sensitization • Urgent need for preventive measures: vaccination • One health approach to brucellosis control 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 13
  14. 14. Acknowledgement • My Supervisors; Prof Nasinyama G, Prof Opuda-Asibo J, Dr. Grimaud P. • Mbarara District Veterinary Officer, Dr. John Barigye and Staff. • Mbarara District Director of Health Services, Dr. Kaguna Amooti. • Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Dr. Jerome Kabakyenga. • Prof Kang’ethe Erasmus, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi University. • Dr. Hitimana, Mr. Mujulizi Tephy and staff of AIDS Informantion Center (AIC), Kampala. • Innovations @ Makerere, French Embassy in Uganda, Dairy Development Authority through FSP/ACSS 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 14
  15. 15. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 29th - 31st/01/2013 An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa 15

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