Review of community conservancies in Kenya

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Presented by Mohammed Said, Philip Osano, Jan de Leeuw, Shem Kifugo, Dickson Kaelo, Claire Bedelian and Caroline Bosire at the Workshop on Enabling Livestock Based Economies in Kenya to Adapt to Climate Change: A Review of PES from Wildlife Tourism as a Climate Change Adaptation Option, ILRI, Nairobi, 15 February 2012

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  • Biodiversity loss is increasing worldwide Poverty is rampant in rural areas of Africa, especially among pastoral communities How to revert trends in biodiversity loss and poverty Is there a tipping point? I will show you an example of one case of a ‘tipping point’ in Kenyan rangeland around Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR)
  • Review of community conservancies in Kenya

    1. 1. Review of Community Conservancies in Kenya Mohammed Said 1 , Philip Osano 1, 2, 3 , Jan de Leeuw 1 , Shem Kifugo 1 , Dickson Kaelo 4 , Claire Bedelian 1,5 , and Caroline Bosire 6 (1) International Livestock Research Institute; (2) Dept. of Geography, McGill University, Canada; (3) Africa Technology Policies Studies Network (ATPS); (4) Basecamp Foundation; (5) University College of London ; (6) University of Twente, The Netherlands Enabling Livestock Based Economies in Kenya to Adapt to Climate Change: A Review of PES from Wildlife Tourism as a Climate Change Adaptation Option, ILRI, Nairobi, 15 February 2012
    2. 2. What is happening in Kenya Rangelands <ul><li>Biodiversity loss – wildlife declined by 50-70% in ASALs in the period 70s-2009 (Norton-Griffiths & Said 2010; Western et al 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock populations – vary year to year in response to rainfall, increase 0.6% per annum, high offtake </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty rates in pastoral communities </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of conservancies – more than 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative for communities to benefit from wildlife revenue - Payments for Wildlife Conservation (PWC) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Shifts in Land Management in ASALs Photo credit: Philip Osano Land Tenure Communal Privatized Mobility Open Closed Tourism Benefits Latent Gone Payments for Wildlife Conservation (PWC) Land Lease
    4. 4. Wildlife trend and Poverty
    5. 5. Wildlife Density1970s Wildlife Density 1990s Source: WRI, ILRI, DRSRS, CBS 2007
    6. 6. Wildlife Density in 1990s Poverty Rate in 1999 Source: WRI, ILRI, DRSRS, CBS 2007
    7. 7. Evolution of Conservancies
    8. 8. Conservancy Geo-database <ul><li>Gathered and complied from NGOs, and research groups (such as Kenya Wildlife Service, African Conservation Centre, African Wildlife Foundation, Northern Rangeland Trust, The Wildlife Foundation), </li></ul><ul><li>Local communities (Olare Orok Conservancy, Naiboisho Conservancy, BaseCamp Foundation, OlKiramatian Group Ranch, SORALO, individual conservancies in Kajiado) </li></ul><ul><li>Reports, publications and maps (hard and soft copy) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Personal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled the geo-database and added other auxiliary data such year of establishment, number of members, area, project type, land tenure, funders, etc., </li></ul>
    9. 9. Ratio between conservancies and PA Evolution of conservancies in the Kenya Rangeland
    10. 10. Typology of the conservancies in the Kenya Rangelands Photos: Rob O’Meara, Sarah O’Meara Source of Information: Olare Orok Conservancy Trust publication District Production System Number of Conservancies Baringo wildlife + livestock 1 Garissa wildlife + livestock 1 Kajiado wildlife 2 Kajiado wildlife + livestock 14 Kwale wildlife 1 Laikipia wildlife 1 Laikipia wildlife + livestock 4 Marsabit wildlife + livestock 1 Narok Wildlife 2 Narok wildlife + livestock 6 Samburu Unknown 1 Samburu wildlife + livestock 7
    11. 11. Typology of the conservancies in the Kenya Rangelands Land sub-division in the Mara District Land tenure category Number of Conservancies Baringo Trust land 1 Garissa Trust land 1 Kajiado Group Ranch 10 Kajiado Private 6 Kwale Private 1 Laikipia Group Ranch 5 Marsabit Trust land 1 Narok Private 8 Samburu Group Ranch 6 Samburu Trust land 2
    12. 12. Typology of the conservancies in the Kenya Rangelands Photos: Rob O’Meara, Sarah O’Meara Source of Information: Olare Orok Conservancy Trust publication District Project type Number of Conservancies Baringo Program 1 Garissa Program 1 Kajiado Market 9 Kajiado Program 6 Kajiado Unknown 1 Kwale Program 1 Laikipia Program 5 Marsabit Program 1 Narok Market 7 Narok Program 1 Samburu Unknown 2 Samburu Program 6
    13. 13. Market – Olare Orok Photos: Rob O’Meara, Sarah O’Meara Source of Information: Olare Orok Conservancy Trust publication
    14. 14. Case Study Sites
    15. 15. Evolution of the Mara Conservancies
    16. 16. Land tenure and policy changes in the Mara <ul><li>In 1911, the Maasai lost about 60% of their best land and pastures </li></ul><ul><li>They were moved from northern reserves to southern reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure is changing from Group ranches to private ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Subdivision as been followed by land intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2006 land around the Mara have consolidated to form the conservancies </li></ul>
    17. 17. Wildlife densities
    18. 18. Species richness - wildlife Ministry
    19. 19. Olare-Orok Conservancy (OOC) <ul><li>Located next to Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Involves 154 Landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Covers an area of 9720Ha </li></ul><ul><li>PWC rate (US$/ha/year): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 2006-2008: 36 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- (2009-2010): 43 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 2006 Conservancies <ul><li>Names & Area (Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Olare Orok (9,720) </li></ul><ul><li>Olkinyei (4,856) </li></ul>Map source; M. Said; Malcom Gladwell (2000) “The tipping point”
    21. 21. 2007 Conservancies <ul><li>Names & Area (Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Olare Orok (9,720) </li></ul><ul><li>Olkinyei (4,856) </li></ul><ul><li>Motorogi (5,466) </li></ul>Map source; M. Said; Malcom Gladwell (2000) “The tipping point”
    22. 22. 2009 Conservancies <ul><li>Names & Area (Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Olare Orok (9,720) </li></ul><ul><li>Olkinyei (4,856) </li></ul><ul><li>Motorogi (5,466) </li></ul><ul><li>Mara North (30,955) </li></ul>Map source; M. Said; Malcom Gladwell (2000) “The tipping point”
    23. 23. 2010 Conservancies <ul><li>Names & Area (Ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Olare Orok (9,720) </li></ul><ul><li>Olkinyei (4,856) </li></ul><ul><li>Motorogi (5,466) </li></ul><ul><li>Mara North (30,955) </li></ul><ul><li>Naboisho (20,946) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for PWC </li></ul><ul><li>Enoonkishu (6,566) </li></ul><ul><li>Lamek (6,860) </li></ul><ul><li>Ol-Chorro (6,879) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Revenues from Conservancies in the Mara Photo Credit: David Huberman (IUCN)
    25. 25. Conservancy revenue contribution to wildlife conservation and pastoral livelihoods in the Mara <ul><li>Post-privatisation land reconsolidation for wildlife and livestock mobility is taking place in conservancies around the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) </li></ul>2. Total area of the eight (8) Conservancies in Narok district (~ 92,000 ha) is more than half (61%) of the area of Maasai Mara National Reserve itself (150,000 ha) 3. Local community earn more than Ksh 0.25 billion annually, now paid directly to households on a flat rate based on land holdings; contrast to earlier indirect arrangements Name Core conservation area (Ha) Payment rate ($/Ha) Enoonkishu 6,566 Not yet determined Lamek 6,860 bednights based Ol Chorro 6,879 bednights based MNC 30,955 Kshs 2500 ($36) Motorogi 5,466 Kshs 2500 ($36) Naboisho 20,946 Kshs 2000 ($29) Ol Kinyei 4,856 Kshs 1300 ($19) Olare Orok 9,720 Kshs 3000 ($43) Total 92,248
    26. 26. Biodiversity outcomes
    27. 27. Vision 2030 Securing Wildlife Corridors
    28. 28. Trends of wildebeest and sheep & goats in the Mara Ecosystem Source: Ogutu, Owen-Smith, Piepho and Said 2011
    29. 29. Mara Kitengela Olkiramatian <ul><li>Connectivity dispersal and wildlife corridors (Vision 2030) </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of meta-population </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of degraded lands, wildlife and ecosystem services </li></ul>Wildlife dispersal areas and corridors
    30. 30. Competing land uses <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Urban development </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels - rangeland </li></ul>
    31. 31. Conservancies and wildlife corridors and dispersal areas
    32. 32. Acknowledgements International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) ( www.ilri.org ) McGill University ( www.mcgill.ca ) - Department of Geography and Department of Anthropology -McGill Institute for International Development Studies (IIDS) International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada ( www.idrc.ca ) University College, London (UCL), Department of Anthropology Africa Technology Policy Studies Network (ATPS) ( www.atpsnet.org ) National Environment Research Council (NERC)-ESPA (NERC grant NE/1003673) Association for the Strengthening of Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA grant PAAP/09/02) ( http:// www.asareca.org / ) World Resource Institute (WRI) ( www.wri.org ) Various partners and collaborators in Kenya (Kenya Wildlife Services, Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing, African Conservation Centre, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, African Wildlife Foundation) Local community and NGOs - Local community in Mara, Northern Rangeland Trust, The Wildlife Foundation, Olare Orok Conservancy, Naiboisho Conservancy, BaseCamp Foundation, OlKiramatian Group Ranch, SORALO
    33. 33. Next Presentation - Case Studies <ul><li>In depth analysis on selected conservancies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community mobilization, design and partnership arrangements in Conservancies (Dickson Kaelo) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PWC as a coping strategy under different conservancy institutional arrangements: comparative analysis of 3 wildlife conservancies in Kenyan Rangelands (Regina and Philip) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis of Institutional Arrangements in the Conservancies (Sarah) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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