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Reclaiming depleted Nile water for life and livelihoods

Poster prepared for the ILRI Annual Program Meeting (APM) 2010, held at ILRI campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 14-17, 2010.

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Reclaiming depleted Nile water for life and livelihoods

  1. 1. Reclaiming Depleted Nile Water for Life and Livelihoods 1 3 2 1&3 4 1 1 1 5 1 D. Peden , S. Awulachew , M. Alemayehu , T. Amede , H. Faki , A. Haileslassie , J. Gitau , M. Herrero , D. Mpairwe , P. van Breugel 1 2 3 International Livestock Research Institute; Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia; International Water Management Institute; 4 5 Agricultural Economics and Policy Research Center, ARC, Sudan; Animal Science Department, Makerere University, Uganda Six Rainfed Livestock Production Systems Six Major Livestock Production 800 • Cover about 60% of the area of the Nile River Basin. 600 Systems in the Nile River Basin 400 (Locations and Description) • Are home to about 50% of the Nile’s peoples. 200 Arid Arid Livestock Mixed crop • Receive about 85% of total basin rainfall (2 trillion m3/year). 0 dominated systems Humid livestock systems Humid Area (1000 km2) • Lose about 75% of basin rainfall as evapotranspiration where Temperate Temperate evaporation is excessive. 40 • Support 90% of the Nile’s Tropical Livestock units. 30 20 • Use 60 billion m3 of water to produce forages, pasture & crop 10 Egypt residues for animal feed. 0 Human population (millions) • Currently expose people to widespread and needless poverty, hunger and land and water degradation. 30 Sudan 20 Opportunity to increase access to and benefits 10 from rainwater for people and nature 0 Cattle, Sheep and Goat TLU (millions) • Billions of cubic meters of water are potentially available for Ethiopia agricultural production and ecosystem services. 30 Animal water use = 59 billion m3 • Convert excessive evaporation (E) to transpiration (T). 20 DR Congo Uganda Kenya • Rehabilitate vegetation in the six livestock production systems. 10 Rwanda • Increasing water productivity requires: 0 Burundi Water use for feed by cattle, sheep • Better access to livelihood assets, and goats (billion m3/year) Tanzania • Improved livestock & crop husbandry and health, • Access to markets & value added production, 600 Total rain = 1,680 billion m3 600 Rain lost as ET = 1,272 billion m3 • Land and water conservation, and 400 400 • Capacity building, institutional development, investment & multi- stakeholder participation. 200 200 0 0 Estimated annual rainfall (billion m3) Estimated actual annual ET (billion m3) Case example BEFORE: Degraded system & Lower transpiration AFTER: Rehabilitated system & higher transpiration Photos 1 & 2: The degraded Cattle Corridor in Uganda is characterized by Photos 3 & 4: Night corralling of livestock deposits manure on previously over-grazing, excessive charcoal production, vegetation loss, and high run- degraded soils led to rehabilitation of livestock production and ecosystem off, evaporation, sedimentation, and erosion. Termites consumed any pasture services. Termites seem to shift their diets from pasture grass to manure vegetation that started to grow. Livestock water productivity and ecosystem enabling reestablishment of vegetative cover. services dropped to almost nil. The good news is … And the not so good news is … Better management of rainwater in livestock systems of the Nile River Basin affords a Restoring the Nile’s agricultural, natural, and aquatic ecosystems remains an elusive huge opportunity to capture billions of cubic meters of water otherwise depleted as goal given the centuries old challenge of equitably and sustainably managing evaporation helping to combat desertification while increasing crop and livestock common property natural resources, a challenge now aggravated by population production and ecosystem and services such as carbon sequestration. growth, poverty, hunger, and transboundary constraints to river basin management. April 2010 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Makerere University Agricultural Research Research Center, RC, Sudan