Nile Basin livestock-water productivity


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Poster prepared by D Peden, C Ebong, N El-Khodari, H Gessesse, M Jabbar, Gabriel Kiwuwa, Tesfaye Kumsa, D Merrey, J Ndikumana, M Rosales, Hilmy Sally, B van Koppen, M Vigoda for the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food, 2003

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Nile Basin livestock-water productivity

  1. 1. FU Berlin Nile Basin Livestock Water Productivity Reclaiming Depleted Nile Water for Life and Livelihoods D. Peden1, S. Awulachew3, M. Alemayehu2, T. Amede1&3, H. Faki4, A. Haileslassie1, J. Gitau1, M. Herrero1, D. Mpairwe5, P. van Breugel1 1 International Livestock Research Institute;  2 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia; 3 International Water Management Institute; 4Agricultural Economics and Policy Research Center, ARC, Sudan; 5 Animal Science Department, Makerere University, Uganda Six Rainfed Livestock Production Systems: Six Major Livestock Production  • Cover about 60% of the area of the Nile River Basin. Systems in the Nile River Basin (Locations and Description) • Are home to about 50% of the Nile’s peoples. Arid Arid • Receive about 85% of the Nile’s rainfall of about 2 trillion m3/year. Livestock  Mixed crop  dominated  Humid  livestock  Humid  • Lose about 75% of basin rainfall as evapotranspiration. systems systems Temperate Temperate • Support almost 90% of the Nile’s Tropical Livestock units (TLU) (One TLU = 250 kg live animal weight). • Use about 60 billion m3 of water to produce forages, pasture and crop residues for animal feed. • Currently expose people to widespread and needless poverty, hunger Egypt and land and water degradation.    Opportunity to increase access to and benefits  from rainwater for people and nature: • Billions of cubic meters of water are potentially available for increased Sudan agricultural production and ecosystem services by  converting excessive evaporation (E) to transpiration (T) and increasing water productivity. • Vegetative rehabilitation of the six livestock production systems is key. (millions) • Increasing water productivity requires better access to  livelihood  Ethiopia assets, improved crop and livestock husbandry and health, access to Total = 59 billion m3 markets, value added production, and land and water conservation. DR Congo • Capacity building, institutional development, multi‐stakeholder  Uganda participation are essential.  Kenya Rwanda Burundi Case example Tanzania • Challenge Program on Water and Food research in Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda confirms that higher environmentally sustainable levels of  crop and animal production are possible without increasing water depletion. Total = 1,680 billion m3 Total = 1,272 billion m3 • Project research indicates that proactive  integration of planning,  investment and management of livestock and water development  increases investment returns.  • Makerere University’s Animal Science Department provides an example of the effect of converting evaporation to transpiration (Photos 1‐4).  BEFORE: Degraded system & Lower transpiration AFTER: Rehabilitated system & higher transpiration Photos 1 & 2: A degraded livestock production system in Uganda’s Cattle Corridor. Photos 3 & 4: Rehabilitated production system. Night corralling of livestock deposits Overgrazing and excessive charcoal production led to vegetation loss and to high run-off, manure on previously degraded soils. Termites seem to shift their diets from pasture grass soil erosion, and evaporation. Siltation and reduced water quality in valley tanks, a water to manure enabling reestablishment of vegetative cover. Increased upslope ground cover harvesting practice, followed. Livestock water productivity dropped to almost nil. Termites and riparian vegetation filter sediments and pathogens resulting in reduced siltation and consumed any pasture vegetation that started to grow. Degraded pasture constrains higher quality water in valley tanks. Increased transpiration drives greater plant growth animal production and compromises provision of ecosystem services. enabling more crop and animal production that is environmentally sustainable. Results in this poster are based on methods used and data collected analyzed by CPWF project partners. For details, please refer to several publication that are now available or will be available For more information contact: e‐mail address shortly through the International Livestock Research Institute ( or the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food ( This poster was for the Tenth Anniversary of the Nile Basin Initiative, 6-8 November 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. For more information contact Don Peden ( Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Agricultural Economics and Makerere University Research Policy research Center © 2009 ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) (ARC, Sudan)