Realizing the benefits of cover crop legumes in smallholder crop-livestock systems of the  hillsides of Central America Tr...
Background <ul><li>CGIAR-SLP funded CIAT-ILRI-INTA-ETHZ Project </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Center: CIAT </li></ul><ul><li>Coll...
Objectives <ul><li>Enhance and sustain crop-livestock productivity in smallholder systems through the integration of legum...
Agronomic and Animal trials <ul><li>N - fluxes (with and without grazing), physiological studies (not presented here) </li...
Trade-off analysis of using legumes for soil enhancing or as animal feed resource <ul><li>Quantify the expected benefits f...
Materials and Methods (SLP) <ul><ul><li>Quantify land and resource use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate production cost...
Materials and Methods (SLP) <ul><li>Ex-ante analysis by simulation of survey data (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECOSAUT, a ...
Ex-ante economic analysis –  Five scenarios Scenarios Description 1.  Baseline Current farm situation(12 ha; 2 ha maize & ...
Ex-post economic analysis – Three scenarios Scenarios Description Adjusted input values with information on: 1.  Base line...
Ex-ante environmental analysis <ul><ul><li>Climatic, soil, and topographic data were   integrated in to  SWAT to derive th...
Results
Agronomic and Grazing Trials
N - budget  [ lb of N/mz] : (seed + fertilizer + air) – (harvest) (5 + 100  + 8)-(70 + 15) =  + 28 Without grazing:  (4 + ...
rio LP AR1 AR2 MP2
Farmer interest in Canavalia as green manure Nitrogen fixation Remains green in dry season and is cover Increased crop yie...
Nutritional quality (% of DM) and biomass production (kg DM/ha)  Component IVDMD NDF ADF PC Biomass Canavalia 2008 65.0 57...
Milk production (lt/cow/day) Treatment Average 4 farms Maize residues only 2008 2.9 2009 3.0 Maize residues + Canavalia  2...
Ex-ante economic analysis
Ex-ante economic analysis: Canavalia   as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>Farm net income increased 6% due to an increase in i...
Ex-ante economic analysis: Canavalia   as green manure (Scenario 3) <ul><li>Farm net income decreased by 5% due to: </li><...
Ex-post economic analysis
Comparison of values adjusted for the ex-post analysis *In Douxchamps (2009) the urea was not suspended due to the incorpo...
Example:Ex-ante vs. ex-post economic analysis:  Canavalia  as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>The income change in percentage ...
Example:Ex-ante vs. ex-post economic analysis:  Canavalia  as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>Thus the economic methodology fo...
Ex-ante environmental analysis
Ex-ante environmental analysis <ul><li>The incorporation of  Canavalia –  regardless of whether it is used for green manur...
Conclusions <ul><li>Ex-ante and ex-post results showed that the use of  Canavalia brasiliensis  as forage improved milk pr...
Conclusions cont.  <ul><li>One major simulated environmental benefit of cultivating  Canavalia  either as forage or green ...
Overall conclusions <ul><li>The inclusion of  Canavalia brasiliensis  in crop residue grazing has shown to be economically...
Next Steps <ul><li>Economic analyses need to be validated </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of Canavalia across sites (on-going...
 
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Realizing the benefits of cover crop legumes in smallholder crop-livestock systems of the hillsides of Central America : Trade-off analysis of using legumes for soil enhancing or as animal feed resource

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Presentation by M. Quintero, R. D. Estrada, F. Holmann, I. Rao, S. Martens, M. Peters, R. Van der Hoek, M. Mena, S. Douxchamps, A. Oberson, and E. Frossard (CIAT) to the CGIAR Systemwide Livestock Programme Livestock Policy Group Meeting, 1 December 2009

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  • 1.Sandy loam site 2. Clayey loam site
  • 1.Sandy loam site 2. Clayey loam site
  • Site differences need for deep soils, OM, good drainage, not too many rocks
  • Selection criteria: 3-5 months of lactation duration: 10 days (5 days adaptation, 5 days measurements
  • It is noticeable that assumptions made in the ex-ante analysis about milk production when Canavalia is used for animal production, maize productivity, and Canavalia productivity were very similar to the values obtained during field experiments. However, there are some changes with respect to beans productivity for which the reported productivity by farmers in 2007 is far from what was measured in the field during the same year. This seems to be related with an atypical low ( High? ) rainfall amount that year and the incidence of some pests and diseases (Douxchamps, 2009, pers. comm.). Also, maize production costs int the ex-post analysis were higher as any reduction on the application of urea was reported during field trials and it is uncertain at this moment at what proportion this can be reduced throughout the time as Canavalia is used as green manure for longer periods of time. (in the ex-ante analysis was simulated a reduction in the purchase of urea or practically 100% and only was used NPK).
  • The income was increased by 6% in the ex ante analysis while in the ex-post a 8% increase was obtained.
  • The income was increased by 6% in the ex ante analysis while in the ex-post a 8% increase was obtained.
  • Realizing the benefits of cover crop legumes in smallholder crop-livestock systems of the hillsides of Central America : Trade-off analysis of using legumes for soil enhancing or as animal feed resource

    1. 1. Realizing the benefits of cover crop legumes in smallholder crop-livestock systems of the hillsides of Central America Trade-off analysis of using legumes for soil enhancing or as animal feed resource M. Quintero, R. D. Estrada, F. Holmann, I. Rao, S. Martens, M. Peters, R. Van der Hoek, M. Mena, S. Douxchamps, A. Oberson, and E. Frossard Presentation: CGIAR Systemwide Livestock Programme Livestock Policy Group, 1 December 2009
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>CGIAR-SLP funded CIAT-ILRI-INTA-ETHZ Project </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Center: CIAT </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating Institutions: ILRI, INTA-Nicaragua, </li></ul><ul><li>ETHZ-Switzerland, University of Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>Project duration : 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Project Budget: US$195,300 </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Feed shortages, particularly in the dry season </li></ul><ul><li>Declining soil fertility versus high fertilizer prices </li></ul><ul><li>High demand for livestock products and fluctuating availability and prices for dairy products </li></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Enhance and sustain crop-livestock productivity in smallholder systems through the integration of legumes as cover crops (ETH-CIAT-INTA Project ) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the biophysical and socio-economic trade offs of introducing legume cover crops either as green manure for improving crop productivity and soil quality or as forage for improving animal productivity (CIAT-ILRI-INTA-ETH Project) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Agronomic and Animal trials <ul><li>N - fluxes (with and without grazing), physiological studies (not presented here) </li></ul><ul><li>Agronomic performance, milk production and quality (improving maize crop residues with Canavalia) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer preferences </li></ul>
    5. 5. Trade-off analysis of using legumes for soil enhancing or as animal feed resource <ul><li>Quantify the expected benefits from the use of Canavalia brasiliensis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as dry season forage to increase the productivity of milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as green manure to increase the productivity of maize and beans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect of incorporation of Canavalia on environmental externalities such as sediment and water yields </li></ul>
    6. 6. Materials and Methods (SLP) <ul><ul><li>Quantify land and resource use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate production costs and quantify the productivity of maize, beans, and milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantify the expectations of producers for use of Canavalia as dry season forage for milk production or as green manure for improving soil fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surveys conducted with 10 smallholders in September 2007 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Materials and Methods (SLP) <ul><li>Ex-ante analysis by simulation of survey data (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECOSAUT, a linear programming model that allows the evaluation of changes in land use on productivity under multiple criteria (social, economic, and environmental conditions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) to analyze environmental externalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex-post analysis by adjusting input values using data from field measurements (2009) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ex-ante economic analysis – Five scenarios Scenarios Description 1. Baseline Current farm situation(12 ha; 2 ha maize & beans; rest is pasture) 2. Canavalia as feed Canavalia is adopted as dry season forage 3. Canavalia as green manure Canavalia is adopted to improve crop p roductivity 4. Canavalia as feed with sorghum Canavalia is adopted together with sorghum to increase milk production 5. Canavalia to improve soil quality Canavalia/maize is rotated throughout the farm area over time (8-10 years) and then rotation is followed by planting an improved grass ( Brachiaria brizantha )
    9. 9. Ex-post economic analysis – Three scenarios Scenarios Description Adjusted input values with information on: 1. Base line Current farm situation(12 ha; 2 ha maize & beans; rest pasture) Beans and maize productivity reported for field trials during 2007-2008 in Nicaragua 2. Canavalia as feed Canavalia is adopted as dry season forage Milk productivity data reported for field trials in Santander de Quilichao Station (Colombia) and Canavalia and maize productivity –when rotated with Canavalia from Nicargua trials 3. Canavalia as green manure Canavalia is adopted to improve crop p roductivity The effect of different treatments was analyzed for the maize grain yield harvested in 2007 and 2008 by applying an ANOVA analysis (Nicaragua trials) Treatments: i) the traditional maize-bean rotation ii) the maize- Canavalia rotation
    10. 10. Ex-ante environmental analysis <ul><ul><li>Climatic, soil, and topographic data were integrated in to SWAT to derive the values of sediment and water yields, surface runoff, lateral flow, percolation, evapotranspiration, and soil water for the following scenarios: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current farm situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canavalia as forage for animal production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canavalia as green manure for soil improvement </li></ul></ul>Grazed after 90 days of growth Dry Wet
    11. 11. Results
    12. 12. Agronomic and Grazing Trials
    13. 13. N - budget [ lb of N/mz] : (seed + fertilizer + air) – (harvest) (5 + 100 + 8)-(70 + 15) = + 28 Without grazing: (4 + 100 + 36 )-(70) = + 70 With grazing: (4 + 100 + 36 )-(70 + 50) = + 20 NPK UREA Maize - bean Maize - canavalia NPK UREA NPK UREA NPK UREA
    14. 14. rio LP AR1 AR2 MP2
    15. 15. Farmer interest in Canavalia as green manure Nitrogen fixation Remains green in dry season and is cover Increased crop yields and … nitrógeno
    16. 16. Nutritional quality (% of DM) and biomass production (kg DM/ha) Component IVDMD NDF ADF PC Biomass Canavalia 2008 65.0 57.2 57.2 8. 8 1631 2009 61.5 64.7 41.9 9.5 1741 Weeds 2008 40.4 38. 7 38. 7 4.9 660 2009 37.1 67.0 55.5 5.7 333 Maize residues 2008 41. 1 73. 8 73. 8 2. 6 2059 2009 34.7 86.1 61.5 1.5 4182
    17. 17. Milk production (lt/cow/day) Treatment Average 4 farms Maize residues only 2008 2.9 2009 3.0 Maize residues + Canavalia 2008 3.4 2009 3.8
    18. 18. Ex-ante economic analysis
    19. 19. Ex-ante economic analysis: Canavalia as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>Farm net income increased 6% due to an increase in income from milk of 32% because milk yield per cow increased from 3 kg/d to 3.7 kg/d </li></ul><ul><li>Increment of 57% in the use of hired labor (from 90 d/year to 141) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Ex-ante economic analysis: Canavalia as green manure (Scenario 3) <ul><li>Farm net income decreased by 5% due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income from maize and beans increased by 4% but … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired labor increased by 50% (from 90 d/year to 135) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Ex-post economic analysis
    22. 22. Comparison of values adjusted for the ex-post analysis *In Douxchamps (2009) the urea was not suspended due to the incorporation of Canavalia in the rotation ** In Martens (2009) results, a 15% of milk production increase was obtained when Canavalia was used for animal nutrition Note: Same prices were assumed in the ex-ante and ex-post analysis Variable Ex-ante Ex-post Canavalia productivity (t/ha) 2 2 Maize production costs (when rotated with Canavalia ) 64 99* Milk production (lt/day per cow) - Baseline 3 3 Milk production (lt/day per cow) - Canavalia as forage 3.7 3.45** Maize productivity t/ha (baseline and Canavalia -based rotation) 2.3 2.4 Bean productivity (t/ha) 1.3 0.16
    23. 23. Example:Ex-ante vs. ex-post economic analysis: Canavalia as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>The income change in percentage terms is very similar </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly explained by the fact that input data used during the ex-ante analysis was very close to the values actually measured in the field during the trials </li></ul><ul><li>In absolute terms, the ex-ante analysis overestimated the net revenues of the simulated baseline and scenario 2 in 26% </li></ul><ul><li>This overestimation is explained by the difference on beans productivity reported by the farmers during field surveys in 2007 vs. Douxchamps et al. (2009) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Example:Ex-ante vs. ex-post economic analysis: Canavalia as forage (Scenario 2) <ul><li>Thus the economic methodology for estimating ex-ante impacts of introducing Canavalia as forage showed a good performance and this is a function of the accurateness of available secondary data, especially data related to expected crop and milk productivity increases </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is clear that ex-ante analysis approaches and tools can not anticipate atypical behavior of some variables as was the case of the bean productivity that decreased below the levels reported by the farmers </li></ul>Cont.
    25. 25. Ex-ante environmental analysis
    26. 26. Ex-ante environmental analysis <ul><li>The incorporation of Canavalia – regardless of whether it is used for green manure or forage increases both, the sediment and water yield </li></ul><ul><li>Water yield increase occurs also during the dry months </li></ul><ul><li>Also the lateral flow and percolation are improved </li></ul><ul><li>However there is a different effect on surface runoff of incorporating this legume depending on the soil type. Surface runoff is reduced in the sandy loam soil (Soil Type 1) while it is increased in the clayey soil (Soil Type 2) </li></ul><ul><li>The incorporation of Canavalia improves the retention of water in the soils particularly during the dry months </li></ul>
    27. 27. Conclusions <ul><li>Ex-ante and ex-post results showed that the use of Canavalia brasiliensis as forage improved milk productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>An atypical low bean productivity measured during the experimental period caused disparities between ex-ante vs. ex-post income estimation when using Canavalia as forage </li></ul><ul><li>Probably, the adoption of this forage legume crop should be combined with the use of other energy sources such as sugarcane and improved grass pastures to increase the carrying capacity of farms </li></ul>
    28. 28. Conclusions cont. <ul><li>One major simulated environmental benefit of cultivating Canavalia either as forage or green manure could be increase in water yield and soil moisture during the dry season </li></ul><ul><li>The magnitude and significance of this effect is affected by the type of soils, being significantly higher for soil moisture and for water yield in sandy loam soil than in clayey soil </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, these results need to be calibrated with longer-term field measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling results are very sensitive to the level of uncertainty of input data (primary vs. secondary data) but still the trends of predictive results are maintained </li></ul>
    29. 29. Overall conclusions <ul><li>The inclusion of Canavalia brasiliensis in crop residue grazing has shown to be economically and environmentally beneficial, and in on-farm experimentation benefits look even higher </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently high interest of farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of economic, agronomic and animal trials has proven very useful </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations in modeling due to high requirement of primary data </li></ul>
    30. 30. Next Steps <ul><li>Economic analyses need to be validated </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of Canavalia across sites (on-going in Colombia and Nicaragua) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of Farmer to Farmer extension (planned for 2010 in Nicaragua, partly on-going in Colombia) </li></ul><ul><li>Seed production (Basic seed and farmer led, expanded in 2010 in Nicaragua) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar release planned for 2011 (in Nicaragua and/or Colombia) </li></ul>

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