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Horro sheep and production system in Horro areas of Ethiopia

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Presented by Gemeda Duguma (OARI Bako Agricultural Research Center) at the Africa-RISING Quick Feed Project Inception Workshop, Addis Ababa, 7-8 May 2012

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Horro sheep and production system in Horro areas of Ethiopia

  1. 1. HORRO SHEEP AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN HORRO AREAS OF ETHIOPIA Gemeda Duguma Bako Agricultural Research Center OARIAfrica-RISING Quick Feed Project Inception Workshop, Addis Ababa, 7-8 May 2012
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION 05/07/12 Introduction Description of Horro sheep Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Production system in Horro area (Home tract of the Horro sheep) Interventions made so far and major bottlenecks Improvement options 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 05/07/12 Sheep is the second most important livestock species in Ethiopia Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception The country possesses ≈ 26 million head of sheep Ethiopia’s great variation in climate & topography represents a good reservoir of sheep genotypes Diverse sheep breeds and ecotypes are kept in different regions and ecologies – from the mountainous highlands to the arid pastoral lowland areas 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 05/07/12 Few of them have been studied and characterized – only nine sheep breeds have Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception identified by phenotypic and molecular characterization methods Horro sheep is one of the nine sheep breeds identified & is situated in western Ethiopia 4
  5. 5. HORRO SHEEP - HABITAT 05/07/12  Most dominant sheep breed in western Ethiopia Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception  Widely distributed:  Parts of west Shewa zone  Wollega (East, West, Qellam and Horro Guduru Wollega zones)  Jimma and Ill-Ababora zones  These areas approximately lie within:  35° - 38°E, and 5  6° - 10°N
  6. 6. HORRO SHEEP - HABITAT 05/07/12  Altitudes of the region range from 1400-2400m Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception  Population – estimated at 3 million  Horro sheep are reared by about 6.9 million people  Horro breed lives at the Home tract is believed to fringes of trypanosome be Horro district – where infested areas - degree of the ICARDA-ILRI-BOKU trypanotolerance not CBSB project is operating studied 6
  7. 7. BREED DESCRIPTION – COAT COLOR 05/07/12 Horro sheep – almost uniform in color (mostly solid tan / light brown) There are also creamy white, dark brown, black or Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception spotted The body is covered with short smooth hair 7 Both males and females are hornless
  8. 8. BREED DESCRIPTION – GROWTHPERFORMANCE 05/07/12 Larger size - most apparent asset of the breed Breed Category Number LWt (kg) LWt range (kg) Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Afar Yearling male 12 21.8±0.86 16.8 – 26.0 Yearling female 167 21.0±0.23 12.8 – 30.2 Bonga Yearling male 5 38.2±1.20a 36.0 – 40.0 Yearling female 80 31.0±0.47b 20.0 – 41.0 Horro Yearling male 5 31.2±1.70a 25.0 – 35.0 Yearling female 148 26.5±0.31b 20.0 – 39.0 Menz (Mehal Meda) Yearling male 43 24.4±0.63a 14.6 – 38.5 Yearling female 105 20.8±0.42b 12.8 – 32.4 Menz (Molale) Yearling male 26 20.4±0.57a 13.4 – 25.6 Yearling female 87 18.1±0.31b 11.8 – 29.0 Afar Adult ewes 449 24.9±0.23a 13.6 – 38.6 Bonga Adult ewes 357 36.3±0.26b 25.0 – 55.0 Horro Adult ewes 727 33.4±0.18c 21.0 – 56.0 8 Menz (Mehal Meda) Adult ewes 497 23.6±0.16d 15.0 – 35.0 Menz (Molale) Adult ewes 298 21.3±0.20f 13.6 – 29.0
  9. 9. BREED DESCRIPTION – GROWTHPERFORMANCE 05/07/12Traits On-Station On-farm (ICARDA-ILRI- Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception (BARC) BOKU CBSB)Birth Weight (kg) 2.7 3.0 (2847)Weaning Weight (kg) 11.8 13.5 (1837)Six month weight (kg) 15.4 17.9 (605) 9
  10. 10. BREED DESCRIPTION –REPRODUCTION PERFORMANCE 05/07/12 Horro sheep – the most prolific breed Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_InceptionAttributes Indigenous sheep breeds Afar Bonga Horro MenzNumber of lambings 3.45±0.08 3.56±0.09 3.90±0.10 3.59±0.09Twining 0.17±0.03 1.13±0.08 1.29±0.09 ‡Number born 3.61±0.09 4.71±0.15 5.22±0.18 3.59±0.09Number weaned 2.83±0.10 4.53±0.15 4.71±0.17 3.02±0.10 ‡ ewes are single bearers N.B.: Information taken from owners on mature ewes (ILRI- ICARDA-BOKU CBSBP) 10
  11. 11. PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN HORROAREAS 05/07/12 Wet, humid Located in Horro Guduru Wollega Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception zone,Oromia regional state – western Ethiopia 315km from Addis Ababa to the west Based on an ILRI classification of recommendation domains within Africa (Omolo et al 2009):  Horro is located in an area mainly characterized as having high 11 agricultural potential
  12. 12. PRODUCTION SYSTEM… Mixed crop-livestock production is the 05/07/12 predominant production system in the areas Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception 12
  13. 13. MAJOR LS AND CROPSRAISED/GROWN 05/07/12 Cattle, sheep, horses, chicken, goats, mule, donkeys, etc. Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Average sheep possession about 12 head /house hold Major crops grown in the area: wheat, barley, faba bean, field pea, maize, etc. Average landholding in the area – about 2ha of which > 88% used for crop production Sheep – the second most important LS species in the area 13
  14. 14. SHEEP BREEDING MANAGEMENT 05/07/12 Breeding – uncontrolled Breeding rams – selected from within Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Critical shortage of breeding rams in the area (1:72) - male lambs are sold at as early as three to four months of age 14
  15. 15. WHY SELL MALES EARLY? 05/07/12 for immediate cash income, fear of theft and predation Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception mature rams are unmanageable and wander away for mating Borrowing rams is very common among the communities (i.e. owners cooperate with no hesitation even to those individuals who sell theirs very early) 15
  16. 16. MARKETING 05/07/12 Producers sale their animals: Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception  at farm gate, nearby/distant markets  whenever there is an immediate need for cash High price differences between them High number of middlemen, less bargaining power and thus small producer margins 16
  17. 17. Intervention by ICARDA, ILRI, BOKU & the nationaland regional research systems - 2007 Alternative breeding plans & implementation (ICARDA-ILRI- BOKU) 05/07/12 • Production system study • Choice experiments • Own-flock ranking Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception • Group-animal ranking • Weighted ranks • 3 objective traits • 4 alternative scenarios (% ram selected and use time) Presented to communities for decision • Base-line information •Animal identification (ear-tag) • Recording and monitoring •Ram screening and selection 17
  18. 18. SHEEP BREEDING MANAGEMENT –(ICARDA-ILRI-BOKU CBSBPMEMBERS) 05/07/12 No shortage of breeding rams – by creating revolving fund with the seed money provided by the project Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Ewes are mostly served by selected rams Number of marketed lambs has increased System of breeding rams exchange has improved Huge demand to be a member of the project 18 Record and record keeping have gradually improved (enumerators)
  19. 19. BOTTLENECKS - ICARDA-ILRI-BOKU CBSBP 05/07/12 Unable to scale-up/scale-out the improvement program to wider areas - does have its own influence on genetic improvement and marketing Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception of more uniform animals at a time Lack of uniformity among young rams presented for selection (eg. age differences) Production of uniform animals for market Matching of lambing with feed availability and market Organizing project members into cooperative 19
  20. 20. BOTTLENECKS… 05/07/12 Having legally functioning breeding cooperatives is important to coordinate and perform Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception community-level collective actions like:  exchange of breeding rams,  culling of non-selected rams,  joint procurement of medicaments, supplementary feeds to condition/fatten non-selected rams before marketing and marketing of such animals, etc. 20
  21. 21. MAJOR FEED RESOURCES – HORROAREAS 05/07/121) Natural pasture  Two types of grazing (grazing) lands prevail in the area: communal and Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception2) Crop residues the private3) Fallow land  The communal4) Crop aftermath, and grazing area is:5) Hay from natural  The most commonly pasture exploited and depleted type - because all livestock species found in the area are kept on it throughout the year 21
  22. 22. MAJOR FEED… 05/07/12 Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_InceptionCommunal grazing lands – Baqal (left) and Iggu (right) 22
  23. 23. MAJOR FEED … 05/07/12 The communal grazing area is neither protected nor given any sort of management. It is decreasing in size & pasture production from Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception time to time:  population pressure – newly emerging households forced to settle on it  animals are kept on it particularly during peak seasons to minimize labor demand for herding  still others do so in order to defer their private pasture land for later use  various health problems are common – due to different species /herds / flocks mix  most communal grazing areas are swampy bottom lands – 23 hard to find a sheep with an unaffected liver
  24. 24. MAJOR FEED … 05/07/12 The private grazing  Crop residues & crop land: aftermaths:  huge potential (ample feed Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception  the most protected and well managed ) – if properly conserved, pasture land quality is enhanced & compared to the utilized communal grazing  less intervention in the  sheep and horses do area of conservation & not have access to utilization of these feed such type of land resources  commonly used for milking cows and oxen 24
  25. 25. PERIODS OF CRITICAL FEED SHORTAGE 05/07/12  July to September: wet season  most areas are covered with crops - animals are restricted indoor lest they damage crop fields Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception  though grass is available it is contaminated with feces due to the large size of animals standing on it for a longer time each day and hence animals refuse to graze  April to May: dry season where there is shortage of feed availabilityIf properly conserved, cropresidues like wheat, barely,teff, faba bean and field peastraws can be used duringthis season as 25supplementary feeds
  26. 26. IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS 05/07/12 Oestrus synchronization Cooperative formation Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception Market linkage Conservation and enhancing quality of crop residues Harvesting and conserving pastures /grasses during time of ‘plenty’ Reduction of flock size in some cases and focus on productivity rather than mere number – genetic improvement (eg. ILRI-ICARDA-BOKU CBSB) Establishing backyard forage production Devising intervention mechanisms for the improvement of communal grazing areas 26
  27. 27. USAID Quick Feed Project_Inception05/07/12 Workshop_07-08 May 2012 27 Thank You!
  28. 28. FLOCK STRUCTURE 05/07/12 Workshop_07-08 May 2012 USAID Quick Feed Project_InceptionAged=older sheep above 5 yr of age; 4PPT=full-mouthed sheep; 3PPT=sheep with 3 pairs of permanent incisors; 2PPT=sheep with 2 pairs of permanent incisors; 28 1PPT=sheep with 1 pair of permanent incisor; 0PPT=sheep with milk teeth

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