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IPMS experiences on research for dairy development: Approaches and lessons


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Presentation by Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin and Tesfaye Lemma at the National dairy forum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-24 November 2010.

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IPMS experiences on research for dairy development: Approaches and lessons

  1. 1. IPMS experiences on research for dairy development: Approaches and lessons Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin and Tesfaye Lemma, IPMS-ILRI National Dairy Forum Addis Abeba Nov 23-24, 2010
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Types of research </li></ul><ul><li>Research modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Research results/lessons </li></ul>
  3. 3. Type of Research <ul><li>Diagnostic research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To generate quantitative and qualitative knowledge/understanding of the existing dairy value chain system and/or potential interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To generate quantitative and qualitative knowledge/understanding on the operations and effectiveness of interventions in the dairy value chain system, and distill lessons </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research modalities <ul><li>MSc student thesis research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link research to development issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve students in development/capacity development activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to present research to beneficiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPMS staff/consultants/partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader issues – value chain characterization, input and service supply effectiveness, broader baseline and impact household surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of findings and lessons </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Main diagnostic dairy studies 10 Districts Gender baseline 10 Districts Baseline general 2 Districts, 1 milk shed Dairy value chain (butter and milk) 8 Districts Dairy innovation system – district and community 2 Districts Role of dairy cooperatives 5 Districts Dairy extension/knowledge/gender 4 Regions General livestock input/service delivery 5 Regions AI service delivery 4 Districts Dairy production and marketing system
  6. 6. Diagnostic research- results <ul><li>Clear distinction between (peri) – urban fluid milk system and rural butter system </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s role in dairy varies across Districts – milking, hygiene, dung collection, butter processing/sale – especially important in the rural butter system </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity local cows 2-3 ltr/day/cow, cross breeds 5 -15 ltr/day/cow </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline: 58% HH own cows, 2.2 % HH has cross breeds (1% cattle population). HH selling milk 12% and 25.7% selling butter </li></ul><ul><li>AI service delivery 1.88 insemination/conception; 27% conception at first insemination </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diagnostic research -results <ul><li>Partners and roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role public sector as partner in the value chain characterized by emphasis on fluid milk system and supply of inputs/services perhaps resulting from a lack of economics of scale for the private sector in the initial stages of development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale cooperatives often lack business orientation, managerial and leadership skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited involvement private sector to supply inputs and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government role in regulating, linking and capacity development should be enhanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer to farmer knowledge sharing (field visits) important strategy to improve skills, introduce new practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination/integration between value chain actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate demand dairy promotion should take place – school milk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dairy value chain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply – demand situation determines potential for collective action by producers and/or agri business development by private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer – consumer most used market channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of cooperative in milk marketing limited </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Main dairy value chain interventions XXX Crop residue – treatment and concentrate feeding X XXX Cow management XXX - cooperative Milk collection/processing XX CAHW XXX XXX Back yard fodder XXXX X Grazing area enclosure Borana, Begait, Fogera – bull stations, AI - synch Friesian Holstein, Begait – private AI, bull stations Genetic improvement Rural butter system Urban fluid milk system Intervention
  9. 9. Action research <ul><li>Regular M&E (annual) </li></ul><ul><li>“Impact” assessment (end of project) </li></ul><ul><li>Household and gender survey </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention specific studies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Action research – Lessons/Results <ul><li>Genetic improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local breeds in rural butter system appreciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull station in rural butter systems not functioning properly – new institutional arrangement proposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus synchronization aimed at improving AI efficiency– requires considerable awareness raising local communities and public sector staff and organizational/institutional arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grazing area enclosures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very good results in terms of biomass quantity and quality and suppression of weeds (Amicale) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different communal institutional arrangements and use observed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back yard fodder development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FTC planting material demonstration/multiplication successful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private farmer involvement in seed multiplication emerging </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Action research - Lessons/Results <ul><li>Supplementary feeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea treated straw showed daily milk yield increase of 1.2 l/cow/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour constraint observed by farmers – less labor intensive methods required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate feeding accepted – organizational arrangements for supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAHW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More business orientation required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate credit and capacity building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking to the existing animal health system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Milk collection/processing/sale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal collective action to bulk milk in central location successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative collection, processing and sale in District centers varies – capacity is limited – 300 liters/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private commercial collection, processing and sale by individual traders producers observed in several Districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education/extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities changing to development based research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer to farmer knowledge sharing, practical training with follow up and husband/wife training are effective </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Generic Lessons <ul><li>Dairy development is a continuous location specific process which requires new and different responses in time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Successful dairy development value chain requires more integration and coordination between actors </li></ul><ul><li>Research can be made more efficient and effective by prioritizing research topics, adopting common methodologies, involving graduate students </li></ul><ul><li>Priority needs to be paid to development and testing viability and impact of alternative input/service delivery system and processing systems at PA/District level in particular collective action by producers, and/or the public or private sector for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forage seed/planting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale dairy processing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>