Tools for gender and livelihood analysis


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Presentation by Jemimah Njuki at the FAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011.

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Tools for gender and livelihood analysis

  1. 1. Tools for Livelihood and Gender Analysis Jemimah Njuki Team Leader: Poverty, Gender and ImpactFAO-ILRI Workshop on Integrating Gender in Livestock Projects and Programs, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 22-25 November 2011
  2. 2. A ‘short’ list of tools we could discuss…•Agroecosystems Analysis (AEA), Beneficiary Assessment (BA), DevelopmentEducation Leadership Teams (DELTA), Diagnosis and Design (D&D), Diagnostico RuralParticipativo (DRP), Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), Groupe de Recherche etd’Appui pour l’Auto-promotion Paysanne (GRAAP), Methode Active de Recherche etde Planification Participative (MARP), Participatory Analysis and Learning Methods(PALM), Participatory Action Research (PAR), Participatory Research Methodology(PRM), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal andPlanning (PRAP), Participatory Technology Development (PTD), Participatory UrbanAppraisal (PUA), Planning for Real, Process Documentation, Rapid Appraisal (RA),Rapid Assessment for Agricultural Knowledge Systems (RAAKS), Rapid AssessmentProcedure (RAP), Rapid Assessment Techniques (RAT), Rapid Catchment Analysis(RCA), Rapid Ethnographic Assessment (REA), Rapid Food Security Assessment(RFSA), Rapid Multi-perspective Appraisal (RMA), Rapid Organisational Assessment(ROA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Samuhik Brahman (Joint Trek), Soft SystemsMethodology (SSM), Story Methodology (SM), Theatre for Development, Trainingfor Transformation, Visualisation in Participatory Programmes (VIPP), Results basedmanagement (RBM), Community action plan (CAP), Strengths, weaknesses,opportunity and threatsanalysis (SWOT), Force Field Analysis (FFA), ParticipatoryMonitoring and evaluation (PM&E), Process Monitoring (ProM), ParticipatoryMarket Research (PMR); Market Opportunity identification (MOI); Enabling RuralInnovation (ERI), Participatory Market Chain Analysis (PMCA) More is not necessarily better!
  3. 3. Selecting Methods and Tools for data collection1. Type of information needed2. Degree of participation of stakeholders in the design, collection, collation, analysis and dissemination of data and findings3. End use and user of the data (Who will use the data, and for what purpose, relevance of information to different audiences)4. Level of data accuracy and reliability of findings, type and scale of analysis required
  4. 4. Selective methods…………5. Ease of application and requisites for implementation: does the tool require some training, equipment, and special expertise?6. Scale of application/area coverage (hierarchical levels: plots, farms, farmer/households, groups, communities, micro-watershed7. Frequency of monitoring and evaluation (Time demand for data collection and analysis)8. Cost effectiveness (logistics, materials, equipment9. Feedback: necessity to provide quick feedback to stakeholders
  5. 5. Qualitative approaches• Provides interpretive power – What as well as why• Exploring topics less amenable to survey questions• Express local voice and perceptions• Qualitative methods are effective at capturing these issues because – Elaboration, and sometimes several tries and lengthy follow-up and probing, are needed to convey the questions adequately and understand answers – People do not always tell the truth the first time: Getting candid information often requires time, trust, rapport, triangulation, observation• Discover unanticipated issues• Solicit local solutions to problems
  6. 6. Quantitative approaches• Identifies stratification strategy• Provides community and household characteristics for sampling• Identifies issues for investigation• Triangulation, confirmation, contradiction• Determines prevalence of qualitative findings in wider population• Reveals representation of qualitative sample
  7. 7. Some misconceptions about qualitative approaches• It is easy to do and cheap, and anyone can do it.“If you can talk to farmers, you can use qualitative approaches and tools”• With qualitative tools, all you need is to document the results. No analysis is needed— ”just write up the report, its basic stuff”• “You don’t need a research design! Just talk to a few farmers and do a few focus group discussions”• A lack of understanding of the tools and approaches “We are using a PRA tool”
  8. 8. Different types of toolsMapping tools PRA tools Interviews Ethnographic toolsParticipatory Transect Walks Community Case studiesimpact diagrams surveys Trend lines InnovationDiffusion Maps Semi-structured Histories Venn diagrams interviewsBefore and After Life Historiesresource /asset Seasonal Unstructured dmaps calendars interviews Personal diariesSocial network Focus Group Key informantanalysis Discussions interviews Community Organizational meetings assessment Ranking /Rating/Scoring
  9. 9. Mapping Tools
  10. 10. Resource/ asset maps• From Katosi
  11. 11. Resource /Asset MapsBefore After
  12. 12. Integrating gender in the resource maps• Two main ways: – Drawing resource maps with men and women separately – Using cards /symbols to indicate what resources men and women have access to, ownership of and control over
  13. 13. Calendars / trend lines
  14. 14. Food Availability Calendar in El JardinCurrentProducto Ene Feb Mar Abr May Jun Jul Ago Sep Oct Nov DicCaféYucaMaizFrijolCaña P.PollosHortalizasFrutalesFive Years AgoProducto Ene Feb Mar Abr May Jun Jul Ago Sep Oct Nov DicCaféYucaMaizFrijolCaña P.PollosHortalizasFrutales Available Average Scarce
  15. 15. Gender in Calendars• Seasonal calendars to indicate activities and use of symbols for who does what activities• They can be a good way of determining who does what• Can indicate periods of busy activity /less busy activities during the year and the most appropriate period for project interventions• Information can also be used to target activities such as training• Can be drawn separately by men and women
  16. 16. Time allocation calendars
  17. 17. Daily Activity Calendars• Useful for showing daily time allocation between men and women• Can be a useful discussion starter for time reallocation, the role of men and women in the household, farm and market
  18. 18. Institutional / Venn diagramsName of Type of Their Potential Potentialstakeholder stakeholder interests role impacts on /stake them
  19. 19. Categories of Stakeholders• Primary stakeholders: the direct beneficiaries or target of the intervention.• Secondary stakeholders: indirect beneficiaries can be both important and influential; they may be directly involved in the project and are integral to success.• Supporting stakeholders. These are generally institutional stakeholders, such as NGOs, government research and extension services• External Stakeholders: Donors
  20. 20. Institutional /Venn diagrams• Useful for stakeholder analysis• Mapping of different stakeholders and their interrelationships• Can be used for both internal and external stakeholders
  21. 21. Network Analysis• Set of integrated techniques to depict relations among actors and to analyze the social structures that emerge from the recurrence of these relations• Conducted by collecting relational data organized in matrix form.• Actors are depicted as nodes, and their relations as lines among pairs of nodes
  22. 22. Network Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages• Can be done individually or • Limited to evaluation of in groups interactions• Data /information can be • Requires multiple quantified (UCINET) software (UCINET for• Can be done through visual analysis, Netdraw for tools (Venn diagrams) or network maps) short questionnaire survey
  23. 23. Participatory Impact Diagramming
  24. 24. Technology dissemination mappingAppendix 3b. Technology Diffusion / Social Network Mapping: Simplified Sample from Worka Village MAP LEGEND Methods of Seed Dissemination Gift (3kg or less) Mekanajo/ Mekanajo Gift (3kg or more) Mhaber /Mhaber Exchange Sale 7 km Neighboring MOME Village mother brother neighbor brother Iddir 4 km 6 km Brother Iddir Iddir Sister’s 10 km husband MERKO Mhaber WOLENCHETI Mekanajo TOWN Mekanajo friend Neighbor- struggling widow 75 km friend friend Wife’s father DENGORE DONI
  25. 25. PID and Diffusion Maps• Mainly used for assessing impacts and diffusion of information and technologies• Diffusion maps can be used in initial analysis to inform what dissemination approaches are most appropriate for different technologies or information• PID can be sued before interventions to discuss potential impacts /benefits
  26. 26. Pictures; Before and after/ with and without
  27. 27. Mapping toolsAdvantages Disadvantages• Can be used with groups • Requires close facilitation that have low literacy • Time consuming levels • Can be dominated by those• Very engaging that can write (who holds• Easy visual presentation the pen /chalk, stick?)• Can provide massive amounts of information that combine qualitative as well as simple numbers• Can be done on paper or on the ground
  28. 28. Prioritizing /Preference Tools
  29. 29. Scoring /Ranking /Rating methods• Useful for identifying important traits / criteria for organising issues, items by preference• Used mainly for technology evaluation, ranking of priority options e.g priority household income options, asset preferences• Can be used to compare preferences across groups e.g men and women• Useful for understanding key livelihood priorities
  30. 30. Ranking Priority Assets for Men and Women
  31. 31. Ranking, Rating, Scoring• Ranking: Gives ordered preference• Rating: Assigns a qualitative value of preference• Scoring: Assigns a quantitative value
  32. 32. Scoring /ranking /Rating methodsAdvantages Disadvantages• Can be used with symbols • Takes time especially when and counters especially community groups identify with groups with low their own lists and criteria literacy levels for evaluation• Can be done individually or in groups• Allows for group contribution of list to be ranked /rated and the criteria to use• Can be easily quantified
  33. 33. Focus Group Discussions: Description• A group discussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guided by a facilitator, during which group members talk freely and spontaneously about a certain topic.• Its purpose is to obtain in-depth information on concepts, perceptions and ideas of a group• Can be useful to: – Focus research and develop relevant research hypotheses by exploring in greater depth the problem to be investigated and its possible causes – Formulate appropriate questions for more structured, larger scale surveys – Help understand and solve unexpected problems in interventions – Explore controversial topics
  34. 34. FGDs; Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages• Cost- and time-efficient— • Less time to explore and cover more people probe• Can be a safe space for • Inability to triangulate data discussion of sensitive issues on individuals/households• Early identification of • Louder and quieter voices, important issues peer pressure• Discussions trigger ideas, • No very appropriate for recollections, opinions sensitive topics Page 34
  35. 35. FGDs Analysis: Analysis• Text Analysis – QDA Miner – Relational themes – Identifying Key themes in FGDs.docx
  36. 36. Semi-structured interviews; Description• Conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for focused, conversational, two-way communication• Starts with more general questions or topics. Followed by more specific probing questions• Not all questions are designed and phrased ahead of time• Uses an interview guide rather than a set of questions• Used to: – Obtain specific quantitative and qualitative information from a sample of the population – Obtain general information relevant to specific issues, (ie: to probe for what is not known) – Gain a range of insights on specific issues
  37. 37. Semi-structured interviews: Advantages and disadvantagesAdvantages Disadvantages• Depth and detail • More time consuming and• Rapport costly, so smaller sample• Analytic power: Ability to sizes relate data to other data at • No trigger and interaction individual, household, and effects of group community levels• No peer pressure Page 37
  38. 38. Analysis• Three stages of analysis – During and post interview analysis (“follow your nose!” – Field analysis – Formal analysis• Communication – Language – Technical expertise
  39. 39. Questionnaire surveys• Two main types: – Household surveys and individual surveys• Used to collect more detailed data at household and individual level• Results subjected to analytical rigour• Sampling procedures, for randomness, representation etc
  40. 40. Gender in questionnaire surveys• Disaggregating questions by gender; – Not only male and female headed households – Intra-household: men and women within male and female headed households• Asking questions to both men and women in households; – e.g on Assets, income, Food security
  41. 41. Field implementation issues• Sample selection – For groups, sample stratification based on key variables such as gender, socio-economic status• Representation – For semi-structured and case study interviews, representation of key interest groups• Triangulation – Most qualitative tools not enough by themselves, use of other tools for triangulation
  42. 42. Field implementation issues• Physical set up – For group discussions, sitting arrangements, venues can influence discussion outcomes• Discussion guides /interview guides – Semi-structured or unstructured guides with key issues /questions• Skills – Good facilitation skills required for qualitative data collection – Analytic skills• Recording /documentation
  43. 43. P.Sanginga CIAT-CRS Feb2005
  44. 44. Questions /Discussions
  45. 45. Group ActivityGroup Activity 1• Using the Hakuna Matata Case study: Assume you are the community facilitators in this community and you want to starts a project – Identify all the stakeholders at the external level – Identify the different stakeholders within the community – For each stakeholder group, identify some of their constraints to participate (if any) – Briefly describe the strategies that you would use to ensure their participation
  46. 46. Group ActivityGroup Activity 2• Using the Hakuna Matata case study• Indentify an issue you would like to explore further using one of the tools• Use the tool and fill in the relevant information / findings