Community’s Perception ofBrucellosis by ApplyingParticipatory Epidemiology inChiang Mai and Lamphun Province,ThailandJongc...
Introduction• Bovine brucellosis is usually caused byBrucella abortus, less frequently by B.melitensis, and occasionally b...
Brucellosis as a zoonosis• Brucellosis, also known as “undulant fever”,“Mediterranean fever” or “Malta fever” is azoonosis...
Objective of study• Investigation of the perception ofcommunities on brucellosis in Chiang Mai andLamphun province, Thaila...
Area information• Sa-Luang--sub district– Area size: 118,389 Km2 or73,993.12 Rai– Population: 4,692 (2011)– Administration...
Area information• Tha –Pha-Duk--sub district– Area size: 136.163 Km2 85,102Rai– Population: 6,237 (2009)– Administration: ...
Study population712252 1Na-huh key informants (22)Beef cattleholderPublic healthvolunteerVillagerhead of villagecattle sel...
P.E. tools• Semi structure interview• Focus group discussion• Mapping• Proportional piling8
Semi-structure interviewVillagersMain incomeMain occupationVillage problemsRising animal problemsBeef cattle rising proble...
Focus group discussion10VillagergroupsVillagersgroupOccupationProblem invillageCattleholdingproblemsDiseaseproblemsBrucell...
Results1166%23%11%Villagers :Na-huh , animalDisease Problems (%)FMDInternalparasiteeating Foreignbodies26%29%10%24%11%Catt...
Result1247%23%22%8%Villagers : Pa-tueng, animaldisease problem (%)InfertilityDiarrhea incalfRetainplacentadystocia19%9%15%...
13The informants listed rabies (40%), Avain Influenza(24.4%), Leptospirosis (8.9%), Tuberculosis (6.7%),Anthrax (6.7%), an...
Results• The important problems for raising cattle inthis areas are infertility• Only one person has knowledge of brucello...
Conclusion and discussion• The knowledge and perception on brucellosisis very poor in the beef cattle small holdersand vil...
Conclusion and discussion• The disease experience of village has effect onvillager’s perception• Need further investigatio...
Remaining questions• Would be the correct priority level ofinvestment for brucellosis in beef cattle at thenational level?...
Acknowledgement• VPHCAP CMU• Faculty of Veterinary Medicine CMU• ILRI• Rockefeller foundation18
Thank you for your attention19
References• OIE (2009) BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS• WHO (2006) Brucellosis in humans andanimals, Geneva, WHO press.20
Conclusion and discussion• Disease response21Treatment by farmers 1-2 dayNot cureNotify to animal health volunteerNotify t...
Government Brucellosis’s controlpolicies and methods– “Emergency disease” : mandatory report toDepartment of Livestock Dev...
23
24
• The RBT is currently the recommended rapidscreening test, but the results should alwaysbe confirmed by other tests detec...
• The serum (tube) agglutination test (SAT), ormicro-titre plate variants of this, usingheat/phenol-killed whole S-cells, ...
• The SAT is a very useful test for the diagnosisof human brucellosis when it is performedwith a standardized antigen prep...
• The milk ring test (MRT) is a simple andeffective method, but can only be used withcow’s milk. A drop of haematoxylin-st...
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Community’s perception of Brucellosis by applying participatory epidemiology in Chiang Mai and Lamphun Province, Thailand

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Presented by Jongchansittoe, P., Chotinun S., Chaisowwong W., Waropastrakul,S., Unger, F. and Kreausukon, K. at the PENAPH First Technical Workshop, Chiangmai, Thailand, 11 – 13 December 2012.

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Community’s perception of Brucellosis by applying participatory epidemiology in Chiang Mai and Lamphun Province, Thailand

  1. 1. Community’s Perception ofBrucellosis by ApplyingParticipatory Epidemiology inChiang Mai and Lamphun Province,ThailandJongchansittoe, P., Chotinun S., Chaisowwong W.,Waropastrakul,S., Unger, F., and Kreausukon, K.Parcipatory Epidemiology Network for animal and public health network Technical Workshop.December, 13th 2012, Chiang Mai1
  2. 2. Introduction• Bovine brucellosis is usually caused byBrucella abortus, less frequently by B.melitensis, and occasionally by B. suis• Bovine brucellosis is characterized by one ormore of the following signs: abortion, retainedplacenta, orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely,arthritis, with excretion of the organisms inuterine discharges and in milk (OIE, 2009)2
  3. 3. Brucellosis as a zoonosis• Brucellosis, also known as “undulant fever”,“Mediterranean fever” or “Malta fever” is azoonosis and the infection is almost invariablytransmitted by direct or indirect contact withinfected animals or their products (WHO,2006)3
  4. 4. Objective of study• Investigation of the perception ofcommunities on brucellosis in Chiang Mai andLamphun province, Thailand by applyingParticipatory Epidemiology’s tools.4
  5. 5. Area information• Sa-Luang--sub district– Area size: 118,389 Km2 or73,993.12 Rai– Population: 4,692 (2011)– Administration: 8 villages• Na-huh--village– 150 households– 17 beef cattle farms– 10 public health volunteersSa-luangsub-district area5
  6. 6. Area information• Tha –Pha-Duk--sub district– Area size: 136.163 Km2 85,102Rai– Population: 6,237 (2009)– Administration: 15 villages• Pa-Tueng--village– 40 beef cattle farmsTha Pha Dukarea6
  7. 7. Study population712252 1Na-huh key informants (22)Beef cattleholderPublic healthvolunteerVillagerhead of villagecattle seller9321 1Pa- tueng key informants (16)Beef cattleholderVillagerPublic healthvolunteerLivestockvolunteerHead of village
  8. 8. P.E. tools• Semi structure interview• Focus group discussion• Mapping• Proportional piling8
  9. 9. Semi-structure interviewVillagersMain incomeMain occupationVillage problemsRising animal problemsBeef cattle rising problemsDisease managementZoonosisBrucellosis9
  10. 10. Focus group discussion10VillagergroupsVillagersgroupOccupationProblem invillageCattleholdingproblemsDiseaseproblemsBrucellosisLive stockfarmersgroupOccupationProblem invillageCattleholdingproblemsDiseaseproblemsBrucellosis
  11. 11. Results1166%23%11%Villagers :Na-huh , animalDisease Problems (%)FMDInternalparasiteeating Foreignbodies26%29%10%24%11%Cattle holders : Na-huh ,animaldisease problem (%)InfertilitySkinnyAbortionFMDDiarrhea
  12. 12. Result1247%23%22%8%Villagers : Pa-tueng, animaldisease problem (%)InfertilityDiarrhea incalfRetainplacentadystocia19%9%15%18%21%18%Cattle holders: Pa-tueng , animaldisease problem (%)InfertilityFMDSkinnyTickMastitis(dairy cow)Retainplacenta
  13. 13. 13The informants listed rabies (40%), Avain Influenza(24.4%), Leptospirosis (8.9%), Tuberculosis (6.7%),Anthrax (6.7%), and Streptococcus suis (4.4%) asknown zoonoses
  14. 14. Results• The important problems for raising cattle inthis areas are infertility• Only one person has knowledge of brucellosis• They received zoonosis information bygovernment campaigns (Ministry of Publichealth Campaigns)14
  15. 15. Conclusion and discussion• The knowledge and perception on brucellosisis very poor in the beef cattle small holdersand villagers in the study areas• There are not the same perception betweenvillagers and cattle holders15
  16. 16. Conclusion and discussion• The disease experience of village has effect onvillager’s perception• Need further investigation to classify thecauses of “infertility”• Rapid response necessary to control andprevent the disease16
  17. 17. Remaining questions• Would be the correct priority level ofinvestment for brucellosis in beef cattle at thenational level?• How different of Participatory Epidemiologydisease investigation comparing with classicaldisease investigation and laboratory test ofbrucellosis on the same area?.17
  18. 18. Acknowledgement• VPHCAP CMU• Faculty of Veterinary Medicine CMU• ILRI• Rockefeller foundation18
  19. 19. Thank you for your attention19
  20. 20. References• OIE (2009) BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS• WHO (2006) Brucellosis in humans andanimals, Geneva, WHO press.20
  21. 21. Conclusion and discussion• Disease response21Treatment by farmers 1-2 dayNot cureNotify to animal health volunteerNotify to DLD officerDisease investigation and reportcure
  22. 22. Government Brucellosis’s controlpolicies and methods– “Emergency disease” : mandatory report toDepartment of Livestock Development with in 72 hrs– Weekly report until disease disappear– Declare epidemic zone and control animal movement– Summit vaccination plans for epidemic area with in 72hour– In normal herd: Serum Rose bengal test (twice a years)22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. • The RBT is currently the recommended rapidscreening test, but the results should alwaysbe confirmed by other tests detectingagglutinating and non-agglutinating antibodyand by bacteriological culture, particularly inareas where there is a high incidence ofanimal brucellosis• The sensitivity of RBT is over 99%25
  26. 26. • The serum (tube) agglutination test (SAT), ormicro-titre plate variants of this, usingheat/phenol-killed whole S-cells, detectsantibodies to the S-LPS. Antibodies reactingagainst S-LPS can also be detected by othertests – e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA)26
  27. 27. • The SAT is a very useful test for the diagnosisof human brucellosis when it is performedwith a standardized antigen preparation, andtitres which can be expressed in InternationalUnits (IU) can be correlated well with clinicalstages of infection27
  28. 28. • The milk ring test (MRT) is a simple andeffective method, but can only be used withcow’s milk. A drop of haematoxylin-stainedantigen is mixed with a small volume of milk ina glass or plastic tube. If specific antibody ispresent in the milk it will bind to the antigenand rise with the cream to form a blue ring atthe top of the column of milk.28

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