Participatory disease searching using participatory epidemiology techniques in agropastoral and pastoral areas of Mbarara District, Uganda
PARTICIPATORY DISEASE SEARCHING USINGPARTICIPATORY EPIDEMIOLOGY TECHNIQUES IN AGROPASTORAL AND PASTORAL AREAS OF MBARARA DISTRICT, UGANDA Nantima N., Twinamasiko J, Nasinyama G. W, Ademun R., Serugga J, Rutebarika C.S.
BACKGROUND Location of study areaUgandaHuman Population-32 million peopleSize- 241,000 km2No. of districts-112
BACKGROUNDAgriculture -mostimportant sector ofthe economy-Contributes nearly40% of GDP-accounts for 40% ofthe export-employs 73% of thepopulation
BACKGROUND NLivestock•Contributes-8% of the agric. GDP, KAABONG1.6% of the GDP ABIM KOTIDO MOROTO•Country has rich and diverse APAC DOKOLO LIRA AMURIA KATAKWIanimal genetic resource with- NAKAPIRIPIRIT KABERAMAIDO AMOLATAR SOROTI NAKASONGOLA KUMI BUKEDEA KAMULI PALLISA GA NAKASEKE KALIRO•Cattle-11.4 million, KIBOGA BUDAKA UN KIBAALE LUWEERO KAY NAMUTUMBA IGANGA MUBENDE JINJA MITYANA•Goats-14.3 million, IBANDA SEMBABULE KABULA MPIGI•Sheep-3.482 million KIRUHURA MASAKA MBARARA NTUNGAMO ISINGIRO RAKAI•Poultry-42.133 million•Pigs-3.584 million 100 0 100 200 MilesMostly in cattle corridor KEY Cattle Corridor districts Districts Lakes
Objective• Application of Participatory Disease Searching in animal disease surveillance in agro pastoral and pastoral areas of Uganda
Specific objectives of study• To collect and analyse animal health data of major animal diseases of cattle• To sensitise extension staff and some members of the pastoral and agro pastoral communities on the mainstreaming of Participatory Epidemiology (PE) tools for disease surveillance• To form a basis for a proactive and improved reporting system for animal diseases.• To compare the results of PE and conventional epidemiological studies
Methods Participatory Epidemiology Study• Two parishes were purposively selected in Rugaga sub county each representing a management system (agro pastoral and pastoral)• 10 villages were randomly selected from a total of 19 villages in the two parishes
Methods Conventional survey• Sample size determined using standard methods as in Martin et al., 1987• A sample size of 384 heads of cattle was determined assuming a 50% estimated sero- prevalence using FMD as an important disease at 95% confidence interval with an allowable error of 5%• Rugaga subcounty has about 8,000 H/C
Methods Conventional survey• Laboratory samples collected• Serum, whole blood and faecal samples• Testing of samples at NADDEC• Samples tested for CBPP –CFT and c-ELISA• Brucellosis using -ELISA,• FMD using –ELISA (3ABC and Blocking)• Tick Borne Diseases-microscopy• Faecal samples-Floatation methods
Clinical Disease Monitoring• Analysis of existing data received at the study sub county using the passive reporting system during the past 2 years• Clinical disease monitoring-consisted of proactively examining herds reported sick to local veterinary staff and those reported during PM inspection and keeping these records for three months prior and after the study (#6 months)
Results from Pair wise Ranking1. Ekipumpuru/ Trypanosomosis2. Ezwa/FMD3. Ruhaha/CBPP4. Enjooka/Worms5. Amashiyo/ECF• Names in Runyankole
Results from Matrix scoring• Generally, matrix scoring demonstrated good agreement between the 10 informant groups• Disease signs ranged from low, moderate and high levels of agreement (W=0.04-0.933) among the 10 informant groups• The strongest association was in Tsetse flies with Tryps. W=0.933, lameness W=0.732 with FMD• Moderate was observed for abortion, ticks and diarrhoea and least for the rest.
Results from Matrix scoring• Ekipumpuru/ Trypanosomosis-associated with presence of biting flies and tsetse flies, diarrhoea, abortion, death, emaciation, poor hair coat and reduced milk production.• Ezwa/FMD -was attributed to wounds on feet (W=0.73)-highly significant but low with abortion, death, emaciation, high cost of treatment, ticks, tsetse flies, diarrhoea and cough.
Results from Matrix scoring• Ruhaha/CBPP demonstrated medium agreement with indicators such as death, emaciation, high cost of treatment and cough• Enjooka/Worms-demonstrated low agreement with amongst the 10 groups for all disease signs• Amashiyo/ECF was associated with ticks W=0.35
Results from Seasonal Calendars SEASONDiseases Akanda Eitumba (Rain) Ekyanda Musenene (less severe dry) (Very dry) (Rain) Jan Feb Marc Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov DecTryp ••• ••• 0 (0-7) •••• 0 (0-4) ••• 6 (0-9) 9 (0-21)Ezwa •• • ••••••(FMD), 2 (0-6) 1 (0-3) ••••• 0 (0-4) 10 (0-26)Ruhaha ••••••(CBPP), 2 (0-6) 0 (0-4) ••••• 0 (0-3) 10 (0-26)Enjooka • •(worms), 0 (0-8) 1 (0-9) 0 (0-10) 1 (0-11)Amashiyo 0 (0-8) •• •(ECF) 2 (0-10) 0 (0-7) 1 (0-12)
Results from Seasonal Calendars• Ekipumpuru/ Trypanosomosis was associated with rainy seasons• Ezwa/FMD incidence was reported to be high during dry seasons• Ruhaha/CBPP was reported to occur during dry season• Enjooka/Worms and Amashiyo/ECF were less associated to occur during rainy season
Results from Conventional Survey• Brucellosis had the highest sero-prevelance of 77% followed by FMD at 20%• Suprisingly, trypanosomosis that was regarded most important during PE was not identified by conventional testing of blood samples nor Tick Borne Diseases such as ECF and Anaplasomosis
Results from Clinical monitoring and reports from sub countyDisease No. of cases No. of cases (May –July Jan 2009-April 2010 2009) –most (most frequently occurring reported)Lumpy Skin Disease 22 20Trypanosomosis NA 760East Coast Fever 9 41Other TBDs 22 11Eye Infections 0 30Brucellosis 0 5Mastitis 0 4Other diseases 2 74
Results from Clinical monitoring and reports from sub county• Lumpy Skin Disease, East Coast Fever and other Tick Borne Diseases were the most occurring diseases during and after the study period.• Trypanosomosis, East Coast Fever and eye infections were the most frequently reported during the previous year.
DISCUSSION• PE is a useful tool for investigation of livestock diseases especially in pastoral and agro pastoral communities• Communities have a good knowledge of the common diseases affecting their herds
DISCUSSION• Results from PE from the different villages were similar especially from pair wise ranking• The occurrence of contagious diseases such as CBPP and FMD during the dry season makes sense because that is when there is a lot of animal movement in search of water and pasture during dry season that brings animals together increasing disease transmission.
DISCUSSION• The difference between PE results and laboratory results may be due to disease control practice by pastoralists• Anecdotal information shows that cattle owners in this area use a lot of chemotherapeutics and acaricides. Therefore, no parasites in the samples could have meant regular usage of those drugs.• Also samples tested using the most basic methods commonly used for detection of current disease rather than previous exposure.
DISCUSSION• Lack of clarity on the criteria used in determining the most important disease amongst groups during PE could have biased the participants responses.• Some livestock farmers described the most important diseases as those that plagued the herd continually while others associated importance with economic loss• Thus it is important to agree on the criteria at the beginning
DISCUSSION• Another source of error during PE could have arisen from most recent disease. Livestock owners tended to mention the most recent disease as very important because it was very fresh in their minds
CONCLUSION• PE is good because it helps livestock owners to discuss diseases that have occurred even if the signs are no longer evident at the time of investigation• This study provided useful information regarding the financial and socioeconomic impact of livestock diseases to the livelihoods of the livestock keeping communities.
Acknowledgement• Sponsors of the study –DFID and AU-IBAR• ILRI-for participating in the study and for organising and sponsoring this workshop• University of Chiang Mai and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine that organised the workshop• The government and people of Thailand• FAO• Institutions in Uganda that participated in the study -MAAIF, NaLIRRI, MUK-COVAB & MoLG
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