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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia


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Presented by Adugna Tolera at the Inception workshop for the ‘Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia’ project, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012

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Overview of livestock feed supply in ethiopia

  1. 1. Overview of Livestock Feed Subsector in Ethiopia Presented by Adugna Tolera (Hawassa University) at the Inception meeting for the ‘ Fodder and feed in livestock value chains in Ethiopia ’ project ILRI, Addis Ababa, 21-22 February 2012
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>High livestock population (national) but low productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse agro-ecologies and different production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for animal products </li></ul><ul><li>Increased interest and efforts to promote market-led livestock development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Feed related challenges of livestock production 1. Shortage of feeds 2. Seasonality
  4. 4. Potential feed resources <ul><li>Roughages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural pastures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserved forages (Hay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivated forages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast growing and high biomass crops such as maize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hulls - Cottonseed hull, pulse crop hull </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Potential feed resources (cont…) <ul><ul><li>Agricultural/agro-industrial by-products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milling by-products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat bran, wheat short, wheat middling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screenings – barley, wheat, bean, lentils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oilseed cakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonseed, linseed, noug, groundnut, sesame, sunflower </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole cottonseed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horticultural by-products and wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brewery and distillery by-products (including home brewing and distilling) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry litter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional surplus grain and grain broken during processing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Natural pastures <ul><li>Naturally occurring grasses, legumes, forbs, shrubs and tree foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal fluctuation in quantity and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing from time to time due to expansion of cropping </li></ul>
  7. 7. Shrinkage of grazing land due to expansion of cropping
  8. 8. Grass hay <ul><li>Variable quality </li></ul><ul><li>CP may vary 3-12% depending on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass species (botanical composition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting, drying and storage conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Crop residues <ul><li>Crop production provides a range of residues and by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly important sources of animal feed </li></ul><ul><li>Low nutrient content, digestibility and intake </li></ul><ul><li>Variable nutritive value depending upon species/ variety, time of harvest, handling and storage conditions etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maize <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Feed </li></ul><ul><li>Stover (dry or green) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinnings </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf strippings </li></ul><ul><li>Topping </li></ul><ul><li>Grain ? </li></ul><ul><li>Whole plant ? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cultivated forages and pastures <ul><li>Limited availability </li></ul><ul><li>Many years of research and development interventions but low adoption rate </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for resources (land, labour etc.) with crop production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of suitable seeds and planting materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of economic incentives in subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Some cultivated forages species <ul><li>Grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elephant (Napier) grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhodes grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guinea grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oats (highlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous legumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylosanthes spp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desmodiums ( D. intortum & D. uncinatum ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lablab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowpea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfalfa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fodder trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leucaena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sesbania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigeon pea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagasaste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(highlands) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Agro-industrial byproducts <ul><li>Oilseed cakes, milling by-products, molasses, brewery and distillery by-products etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively high quality feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important sources of nutrients (protein and/or energy) for market oriented livestock production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Localized availability and distribution </li></ul>
  14. 14. Agro-industrial byproducts (Cont…..) <ul><li>Supply could not satisfy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Factories operate below capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable price increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in price of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from export market (for raw materials) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Thinning (maize and sorghum) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf stripping (maize and sorghum) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves or foliage of other crops (cassava, sugar cane, banana, enset etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Topping (maize, cassava, sugar cane) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potato vines (and tubers) </li></ul><ul><li>Peelings and reject fruits and vegetables (eg. Banana, pine apple, orange etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally whole crop (eg. Sugarcane, banana, enset and maize) </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped coffee leaves, coffee pulp and hulls (minor contribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds or weed seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Tree leaves and pods </li></ul><ul><li>Cactus </li></ul>Other feeds derived from cropping systems
  16. 16. A sandabo weed seed being harvested for feed at Hunte farm of Bale Agricultural Development Enterprise
  17. 17. Nutritive value of Asandabo weed seed Component Mean Range Dry matter (%) 94.7 94.4-95.1 Ash (% DM) 5.8 3.2-9.1 Crude protein (% DM) 13.3 12.1-14.1 Neutral detergent fiber (% DM) 22.1 19.1-25.6 Acid detergent fiber (% DM) 8.6 6.1-10.7 In vitro OM digestibility (%) 79.5 77.7-81.0
  18. 18. Feed resources used for backyard cattle fattening Wolayta Arsi-Negelle Hararghe Crop residues Areqe atella Thinning of maize and sorghum Cut-and-carry grass Wheat straw Leaf stripping of maize and sorghum Boiled maize & haricot bean grain Wheat bran Weeds and grasses from crop fields Thinning or whole crop maize Oil seed cake (esp. linseed cake) Agricultural by-products like sweet potato vines Sweet potato vines and tuber Enset Household wastes (atella & coffee residue)
  19. 19. Feed industries <ul><li>At infant stage of development </li></ul><ul><li>Few in number </li></ul><ul><li>Localized distribution (Addis – Adama corridor & Bahir Dar) </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at about 25% of their capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly serve commercial producers and few urban and peri-urban smallholder producers </li></ul><ul><li>ACDI/VOCA installed feed mills with smaller capacity for 9 Coop Unions distributed over a wider area </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Shrinkage of grazing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal fluctuation of feed availability and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of well developed tradition of fodder conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Low adoption of improved forage production </li></ul><ul><li>Low nutritive quality of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate and fluctuating supply of agro-industrial by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Feed industries not well developed </li></ul>Challenges of livestock feed supply
  21. 21. Feed price trends over the last few years
  22. 22. How can the problems be addressed? <ul><li>Improve fodder conservation practices </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the advantages and disadvantages of exporting oilseeds vs processing locally </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage production of improved forage crops in niche areas </li></ul><ul><li>Make effective use of available feed resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wastage of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products (cassava, sweet potato, enset etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use balanced feed to increase efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Thank you !