(1) North-south interface, based in the south (2) Trans-Atlantic competition ! (5)Research for research >> R4D (6) BT in ILRI 454 … very high tech .. Alas my proj housed with the soft-scientists in ‘markets’ (7) CRP3.7 – Value Chains (7) CRP4.3 Ag associated diseases – in the Agriculture for Improved Health & Nutrition – rather unwieldy – bio-fortifictaion & aflatoxins
‘ Livestock Revolution’ 1999 IFPRI combination of population growth, rising per capita incomes, and progressive urbanization are creating an unprecedented growth in demand for food of animal origin in developing countries, giving rise to major opportunities and threats for mankind (1) domestic trade / international trade / consumption / densities (2) Investment>> roads, bridges, hospitals … vet services – ltd resources (HPAI was an exception) (2) Surveillance ltd, quarantine & border control ltd; disease don’ t respect them anyway (3) Partnerships >> VN FETP (3) Cambodia & Cuba – why EcoZD works there!
(3) Positive … tech frustrations with PC role – but FAO Nam Dinh & other provinces – many benefits of direct engagement (4) HPAI / FMD / PRRS Risk perception : m/cycle / no helmet / cig / sms / spilt pig carcass (mum-in-law)
(3) Positive … tech frustrations with PC role – but FAO Nam Dinh & other provinces – many benefits of direct engagement (4) HPAI / FMD / PRRS (7) Risk perception : m/cycle / no helmet / cigarette / sms / spilt pig carcase (mum-in-law)
Similar ‘over dinner’ design
Eg Latin America/ EcoSalud ‘ Lost in translation’ – terms of OH v EH v O/Med.. Medics & Vets (clinical / laboratory / epidemiology) Quantitative v Qualitative (ranking, dual health burden) Researchers, Decision Makers, Communities One Health One Medicine EcoHealth Inexact / broad interpretation v H5N1
Organization of animal health in Southeast Asia: Challenges and opportunities for the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS)
Organization of Animal Health in Southeast Asia:Challenges and Opportunities for the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) Jeffrey Gilbert, ILRI CIAT-in-Asia NAFRI, Vientiane VIZIONS Pre-inception workshop Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 3 October 2011
ILRI: Overview• One of 15 international research centers of CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)• Individual Centres set up in 1960s (IRRI 1960, ILRAD 1973, ILCA 1974)• CGIAR 1971: 19 northern Govts + IGO (FAO,WB,ADB …)• ILRI founded 1994; headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya• ILRI focus – livestock, livelihoods, IAR4D• ILRI: organized in 4 research ‘themes’: markets, biotechnology, people-livestock-environment, poverty-gender-impact• CG reform & ‘CGIAR Research Programmes’
Common themes: SE Asia• Many countries experiencing the ‘livestock revolution’, but not all benefiting; poverty & animal-raising; rural/urban• Investment in Animal Health / Veterinary Services in many countries far down the Govt priority list; similarly for Agriculture Extension Services• Veterinary under-graduate and post-graduate training not to international standard; latter limited to overseas scholarships (many relied on former Soviet bloc)• Both of above can make Vet Services a weak partner in joint Human/Animal Health partnerships; often the ‘blame game’ if zoonosis• Many Animal & Human Health authorities appear content with under-reporting status quo: trade issues, transparency• Food consumption issues eg Lao PDR
Viet Nam specifics• Agriculture 30% of GDP• Pigs (26M+) & Poultry (230M+), livestock revolution - log phase!• 70% of population keep livestock• highAn/Hu densities & vast ‘interface’• Ag exports non-livestock: rice, coffee, shrimp, fish; limits on livestock exports• Animal Health Services under-investment; surveillance system & border control limited• OIE-PVS• Real-life testing of the Vet Services – stretched to the limit with HPAI
Viet Nam specifics• Decentralised: DAH/RAHO v SDAH/DVS• Parallel GoVN structure: Party/PC & Line ministries• Participatory methods under-used; random sampling• Consumption habits: canine, wildlife, duck blood, bats, rats• North & South are developing at different pace: ‘super- marketisation’• Wildlife trade – include remote effects (ZA)• Risk perception scenario!
Viet Nam RAHO II RAHO I RAHO IV RAHO III RAHO VRAHO VIRAHO VII
Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development (MARD) National Institute Dept of Animal Dept Livestock National Agriculture of Veterinary Health & Production Extension Centre Research (DAH) (DLP) (NAEC) (NIVR)Regional Animal Sub-NIVR Provincial ProvincialHealth Centres (Nha Trang) Sub Dept of Animal Health District District (SDAH)District Veterinary Station Commune (DVS)
EcoZD: Overview ‘EcoHealth Approaches to the Better Management of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Southeast Asia Region’ Increase the knowledge, skills and capacity of research and infectious disease control personnel in Southeast Asia to understand the risks and impacts of Emerging Infectious Diseases and how feasible options can best be implemented and adapted; ‘Learning by Doing’ approach 2008 – 2012; extended to Aug 2013 (5½ years) 6 countries in SE Asia region; Cambodia, China (Yunnan), Laos, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Thailand One of IDRC’s EcoHealth initiatives in SE Asia: APAIR/APEIR, EcoEID, BECA, FBLI conception as per VIZIONS!
EcoHealth v OneHealth• Definitions open to debate: range from quite rigid to very flexible!• One-Health – biomedical focus: human + animal + wildlife;• EcoHealth: environment & socio-economic aspects – pioneered outside ‘traditional’ health• Personal opinion: OneHealth more theoretical, conceptual; EcoHealth more tangible?• Maybe it’s not so important … which ‘cola’
EcoZD: ComponentsCountry Teams choices for research:Cambodia: zoonotic risks for acute dysenteryChina (Yunnan): Brucellosis (& Toxoplasmosis)Indonesia: Rabies - BaliLao PDR: pig zoonoses (& non zoonoses)Thai-Viet: hygiene in small-scale poultryslaughterhousesViet Nam: zoonoses priority ranking‘EcoHealth’ Resource Centres:Chiang Mai UniversityUniversity of Gadjah Mada
VietnamPartners:•Pasteur Institute•Nong Lam University•Department of Animal HealthResearch:•Original focus priority ranking of zoonoses•initial expert opinion for priorities•determination of ‘hotspots’; cross-sectional to comparehotspot & other areas, but limited data•cross-sectional surveys in pilot areas to ascertaincommunity priorities, challenges on how to focus
EcoZD Project Challenges• Lingua franca• Novel approaches to holistic integrated approaches• Biomedical v Social Sciences• Case studies & publications• Issues of competing/ conflicting priorities• Too complex (2 v 3 institutions)• Priorities EZD v endemic v neglected• 2-D capacity building• Counterpart-driven – level of outputs
VIZIONS: Potential Opportunities• One-Health at work – completed with added value & Proof of concept• Opportunity to support post-graduate study for DAH staff• Evidence base for prioritising animal health services• Decrease the AnH/HuH ‘gap’ – enhanced relationship• Enhances practical ‘preparedness’ – multi-disciplinary team dealing with unusual events to international standard• ILRI collaboration: Livestock socio-economic issues (value chains) & country focus C/L/V/B
VIZIONS: Some of the Challenges• HR supply & demand (compete with ODA & fire- fighting)• Illegal trade – disincentive to participate• Sampling at markets• maintaining high-risk cohort• PC & community engagement• Random sampling should be assured• on pathogen discovery .. Why look for more problems?
International Livestock Research Institute Better lives through livestock Animal agriculture to reduce poverty, hunger and environmental degradation in developing countries www.ilri.org e-mail: J.Gilbert@CGIAR.ORG