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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan A...
Contents of the presentation <ul><li>Study sites in East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Project progress in EA </li></ul><ul><li...
1. Study sites in East Africa Kobo (North-Eastern Eth) and Nekemte (Western Eth)- sites in Ethiopia  Kakamega (Western Ken...
2. Project progress in EA <ul><li>Formation of multidisciplinary teams at site level  </li></ul><ul><li>(partner instituti...
<ul><li>Verification/ground-truthing the villages selected  </li></ul><ul><li>using Google Earth </li></ul>
<ul><li>Conduct of the village survey (24 villages)  </li></ul><ul><li>HH listing/census data collection of the 24 village...
3. Preliminary research findings a) Characteristics of the 3 study sites Kobo Nekemte  Kakamega Altitude 1416-1634 1748-24...
b) Dominant crop and livestock types in EA sites  Kobo  Teff, sorghum,  maize, chickpea and vegetables  Nekemte   Maize, t...
Livestock species Livestock species
c) Cultural practices in the EA sites  ( % HH practicing ) Manure application in Kakamega  Tillage practice in Kobo Kobo  ...
d) Major crop residue types  in EA sites Kobo : Tef straw, sorghum stover, maize stover, chickpea hull Nekemte : Tef straw...
Uses e) Uses of crop residues at the 3 EA sites
f) Trends on the use of crop residues Bars above the lines indicate increase in the last 10 yrs while bars below graphs in...
g) Drivers/challenges of agriculture in the 3 EA sites  Poor and unreliable rainfall – limit crop productivity and biomass...
Soil erosion and gully formation – competing farming land and affecting the quality and quantity of crop product and by-pr...
Nekemte: Soil acidity – high rainfall, P-fixation, Al toxicity- limits crop productivity  Declining soil fertility- defore...
Kakamega: Soil fertility decline- intensive cropping, soil acidity More livestock technological packages, high price of in...
4. Conclusions <ul><li>There is adequate rainfall and high diversity of  </li></ul><ul><li>crops in Kakamega and Nekemte s...
<ul><li>Fragmentation of landholdings and over- </li></ul><ul><li>exploitation of the land resources is becoming a  </li><...
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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites

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Presentation by Kindu Mekonnen and Alan Duncan for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 December 2010

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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: regional case studies. Progress and preliminary research findings for East African sites

  1. 1. Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Progress and preliminary research findings from East African sites <ul><ul><li>Presentation by Kindu Mekonnen and Alan Duncan for the SLP Crop Residues Project Review and Planning Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9-10 Dec 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Contents of the presentation <ul><li>Study sites in East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Project progress in EA </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary research findings </li></ul><ul><li>a) Characteristics of the 3 study sites </li></ul><ul><li>b) Dominant crop and livestock types in EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>c) Cultural practices in the EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>d) Major crop residue types in EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>e) Uses of crop residues at the 3 EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>f) Trends on the use of crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>g) Drivers/challenges of agriculture in the 3 EA sites </li></ul><ul><li>4. Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Study sites in East Africa Kobo (North-Eastern Eth) and Nekemte (Western Eth)- sites in Ethiopia Kakamega (Western Kenya)- a site in Kenya
  4. 4. 2. Project progress in EA <ul><li>Formation of multidisciplinary teams at site level </li></ul><ul><li>(partner institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of village survey instruments (regional) </li></ul><ul><li>and pre-testing it with 10-12 HHs </li></ul><ul><li>Random selection of villages based on market and </li></ul><ul><li>road access (Near-Near, Near-Far, Far-Near and Far- </li></ul><ul><li>Far) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Verification/ground-truthing the villages selected </li></ul><ul><li>using Google Earth </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Conduct of the village survey (24 villages) </li></ul><ul><li>HH listing/census data collection of the 24 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Village based survey data entry and prelim. analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation and pretesting the HH survey instruments </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Preliminary research findings a) Characteristics of the 3 study sites Kobo Nekemte Kakamega Altitude 1416-1634 1748-2418 1426-1719 Major soil types Vertisol Nitisol Oxisol Mean annual RFall (mm) 768 1037 2009 Mean annual temp ( o C ) 30 29 28 Total village population 330-2250 196-391 400-5000 Total village HHs 66-245 35-70 80-1200 Total village land 308-3640 74-164 200-900 Total cultivated land 264-1120 61-149 160-810
  8. 8. b) Dominant crop and livestock types in EA sites Kobo Teff, sorghum, maize, chickpea and vegetables Nekemte Maize, teff , sorghum, finger millet, wheat, barley, oat, faba bean, noug, vegetables and beet root, potato, anchote Kakamega Maize , finger millet, sorghum, beans , bambara nuts, groundnuts, vegetables, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro, banana and sugarcane
  9. 9. Livestock species Livestock species
  10. 10. c) Cultural practices in the EA sites ( % HH practicing ) Manure application in Kakamega Tillage practice in Kobo Kobo Nekemet Kakamega Hand weeding 100 97 98 Chemical fertilizer 0 95 80 Manure application 33 93 47 Tillage by animal 100 100 64 Tillage by tractor 10 0 11 Herbicide application 57 91 0
  11. 11. d) Major crop residue types in EA sites Kobo : Tef straw, sorghum stover, maize stover, chickpea hull Nekemte : Tef straw, maize stover, barley straw, wheat straw, faba bean trash, finger millet straw Kakamega : Maize stover, maize cobs, beans straw, sugarcane tops, groundnut hauls, sweet potato vines, banana stems, soya bean straw, millet straws, beans trash, vegetable stalks
  12. 12. Uses e) Uses of crop residues at the 3 EA sites
  13. 13. f) Trends on the use of crop residues Bars above the lines indicate increase in the last 10 yrs while bars below graphs indicate decreases.
  14. 14. g) Drivers/challenges of agriculture in the 3 EA sites Poor and unreliable rainfall – limit crop productivity and biomass production, create shortage of drinking water Kobo : High human population, small land holding, very low employment opportunities Feed shortage – high livestock population, less quantity and quality feed
  15. 15. Soil erosion and gully formation – competing farming land and affecting the quality and quantity of crop product and by-products Competing use of CR and dung for fuel, free dung collection, deforestation
  16. 16. Nekemte: Soil acidity – high rainfall, P-fixation, Al toxicity- limits crop productivity Declining soil fertility- deforestation, soil erosion, depletion of nutrients, crop and biomass yield reduction Poor infrastructure and market - high price of inputs and low price of products
  17. 17. Kakamega: Soil fertility decline- intensive cropping, soil acidity More livestock technological packages, high price of inputs and services High population, low employment opportunity, declining of landholding
  18. 18. 4. Conclusions <ul><li>There is adequate rainfall and high diversity of </li></ul><ul><li>crops in Kakamega and Nekemte sites as compared </li></ul><ul><li>to the Kobo site. Hence, intensification and use of </li></ul><ul><li>CR for soil management in the Kakamega and </li></ul><ul><li>Nekemte areas can be possible options to sustain </li></ul><ul><li>land productivity and improve income of farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing use of CR is more pronounced in </li></ul><ul><li>Kobo than in other EA sites. Hence, integrated </li></ul><ul><li>interventions can be useful for the Kobo areas to </li></ul><ul><li>maximize the use of CR for sustainable land </li></ul><ul><li>management. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Fragmentation of landholdings and over- </li></ul><ul><li>exploitation of the land resources is becoming a </li></ul><ul><li>threat in most study sites because of population </li></ul><ul><li>pressure and abiotic factors. Hence, there is a </li></ul><ul><li>need to create more jobs and wisely manage the </li></ul><ul><li>land to see a better future in the project areas. </li></ul>

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