Livestock Water Productivity and its implications for developing countries    Harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of S...
First key message <ul><li>Reduce poverty (People) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food production (Livestock) </li></ul><ul><li...
Second key message <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50%. </li></ul>
Third key message <ul><li>We need a water accounting framework to unravel the complexity of livestock-water interactions. ...
LWP framework emerged from research supported by: &
The CA synthesis <ul><li>Water for food; water for life  was launched at World Water Day (22 March 2007) in Rome and Stock...
The CA synthesis: One key action point: <ul><li>Increasing water’s productivity is an effective means of intensifying agri...
CA & CPWF: We used a livestock water productivity (LWP) assessment framework <ul><li>LWP =  ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li...
LWP Schematic Rain Surface   inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration Ground H 2 O recharge <ul><li>A water accountin...
LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration GW H 2 O recharge Trees Pas- ture Feed crops Food...
Strategy   1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Focus on water for feed that can be 50 to 100 times more than drinking. </li...
Strategy   1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Science has failed to understand water cost of feed production. </li></ul><u...
Strategy   2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition & veterinary care. </li></ul...
Strategy   2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Provide:   </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wealth savings </li></ul><ul><l...
Strategy   2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Farm power:   </li></ul><ul><li>Water used to maintain draft animals is ...
Strategy  3: Reduce grazing and watering   impact on water resources <ul><li>Limit conversion of range to annual croplands...
Strategy   3: Reduce grazing and watering   impact on water resources <ul><li>Community management  of range & water. </li...
Strategy  3: Reduce grazing and watering   impact on water resources <ul><li>Restrict animal access to water to avoid:  </...
Case 1  Preliminary Comparison of WP   in rainfed farming in Ethiopia * Source: LWP from ILRI; Grain WP from ECSA (2005); ...
<ul><li>LWP compares favourably with house-hold water harvesting WP. </li></ul><ul><li>Even  without efforts to increase e...
Case 2   Cattle corridor, Nakasongola,   Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Overgrazing; charcoal making; lost vegetation <...
Case 2   Cattle corridor, Nakasongola,   Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Ecosystem flips to LOW WP state. </li></ul><ul>...
Case 2   Cattle corridor, Nakasongola,   Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Better design and community management of commu...
Case 3   Household water harvesting   (with Sasakawa Global 2000 in Ethiopia)   <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed...
<ul><li>Integrating livestock and crop production </li></ul>Case 3   Household water harvesting – Underground tank   Home ...
Key  Message #1 <ul><li>Integrating  livestock  &  water  development in developing countries can help: </li></ul><ul><li>...
Key  Message #2 <ul><li>LWP compares favourable with irrigated horticulture. </li></ul><ul><li>Water depleted by livestock...
Key  Message #3 <ul><li>A water accounting framework could be a useful tool to help target interventions that will increas...
We offer the prototype LWP framework as a tool for use in this BMZ project. THANK YOU!
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Livestock water productivity and its implications for developing countries: harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA

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A presentation prepared by Don Peden et al. for the IWMI-ILRI-ICRISAT-BMZ workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 24-26, 2007.

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Livestock water productivity and its implications for developing countries: harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA

  1. 1. Livestock Water Productivity and its implications for developing countries Harnessing WP in crop-livestock systems of SSA An IWMI-ILRI-ICRISAT-BMZ workshop, 24-26 September 2007, Addis Ababa Presented by Don Peden but with many contributors
  2. 2. First key message <ul><li>Reduce poverty (People) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food production (Livestock) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water resources and the environment </li></ul>Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can help:
  3. 3. Second key message <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50%. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Third key message <ul><li>We need a water accounting framework to unravel the complexity of livestock-water interactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specifically Livestock water productivity (LWP) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. LWP framework emerged from research supported by: &
  6. 6. The CA synthesis <ul><li>Water for food; water for life was launched at World Water Day (22 March 2007) in Rome and Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation builds on the chapter, “ Livestock and water for human development ” </li></ul>
  7. 7. The CA synthesis: One key action point: <ul><li>Increasing water’s productivity is an effective means of intensifying agricultural production and reducing environmental degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating livestock in a balanced way to increase the productivity of livestock water is important in rainfed areas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CA & CPWF: We used a livestock water productivity (LWP) assessment framework <ul><li>LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>∑ (Depleted water) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Milk, meat, hides, manure, wealth savings, cultural roles </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted water: Evaporation, transpiration, discharge/flood </li></ul>
  9. 9. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration Ground H 2 O recharge <ul><li>A water accounting approach </li></ul><ul><li>Scales: Field & farms to large river basins </li></ul>Agricultural production system Water loss or depletion
  10. 10. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration GW H 2 O recharge Trees Pas- ture Feed crops Food crops Grain Residues Evapo-ration Discharge & flood Contami- nation Available animal feeds Drinking Water Conserving strategies Benefits from plants Feed Sourcing strategies Imported feed Net Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Productivity- enhancing strategies
  11. 11. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Focus on water for feed that can be 50 to 100 times more than drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Make effective use of crop residues/byproducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve pasture by transferring evaporation and excessive run-off to transpiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, procuring feed is a primary African livelihood challenge with high labour costs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Science has failed to understand water cost of feed production. </li></ul><ul><li>Varying methods &concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>A 70 fold variability in WP of feed is probably not a biological reality. </li></ul>Example reported water productivity of animal feeds 0.1 – 0.7 USA rangeland 1.1 – 1.7 Irrigated alfalfa 6.0 – 8.0 Irrigated sorghum WP (kg/m3) Feed
  13. 13. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition & veterinary care. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal genetic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to markets & value-added animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing, watering and housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced labour and other costs. </li></ul><ul><li>But , distinguish production from productivity. </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  14. 14. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wealth savings </li></ul><ul><li>Drought risk insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal/water demand management approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Animal Sciences into agricultural water development </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  15. 15. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Farm power: </li></ul><ul><li>Water used to maintain draft animals is an input into crop but not animal production. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian soils too heavy for people power. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-off between using water and petrol. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Limit conversion of range to annual croplands >Grass is best vegetation to protect soil< </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce run-off, erosion, sedimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote transpiration, infiltration, soil water holding capacity & vegetation cover. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Community management of range & water. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit stocking rates and grazing pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish riparian buffer zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply zero grazing and watering. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt conservation agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quality drinking water for dairy cows. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Restrict animal access to water to avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of riparian & aquatic habitats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to human health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia * Source: LWP from ILRI; Grain WP from ECSA (2005); Tomato WP from SG2000. 0.73 Tomatoes Water harvesting & drip irrigation 0.68 Multiple animal products & services Rainfed mixed crop-livestock Wheat Barley Teff Commodity 0.18 0.18 0.28 WP (US$/m 3 ) Rainfed grain production System & Scale
  20. 20. <ul><li>LWP compares favourably with house-hold water harvesting WP. </li></ul><ul><li>Even without efforts to increase either LWP. </li></ul><ul><li>But improved methods and filling data gaps still needed. </li></ul><ul><li>And complexity of mixed crop livestock systems is challenging. </li></ul>Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia
  21. 21. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Overgrazing; charcoal making; lost vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>High run-off + evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated domestic water. </li></ul>WHAT IS WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF THIS LAND?
  22. 22. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Ecosystem flips to LOW WP state. </li></ul><ul><li>Termites dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Without vegetation, clay soils expand with light rain sealing surface, preventing infiltration & limiting plant production. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Better design and community management of community ponds and drinking troughs. </li></ul><ul><li>Better watering practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Reseeding upslope pasture. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Case 3 Household water harvesting (with Sasakawa Global 2000 in Ethiopia) <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed farming; low productivity; very poor households (<$300/year); high drought risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Long treks for water for people & animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Milk production < 3 litre/day/cow. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly degraded land and water resources. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Integrating livestock and crop production </li></ul>Case 3 Household water harvesting – Underground tank Home consumption Give water Zero-grazing & hybrid cow Adding value & markets Benefits > $1500 High LWP
  26. 26. Key Message #1 <ul><li>Integrating livestock & water development in developing countries can help: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water and the environment. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Key Message #2 <ul><li>LWP compares favourable with irrigated horticulture. </li></ul><ul><li>Water depleted by livestock keeping could be easily be reduced by more than 50%. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Key Message #3 <ul><li>A water accounting framework could be a useful tool to help target interventions that will increase agricultural water productivity. </li></ul>
  29. 29. We offer the prototype LWP framework as a tool for use in this BMZ project. THANK YOU!

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