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Agricultural research for crop and livestock value chains development: The IPMS experience


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Agricultural research for crop and livestock value chains development: The IPMS experience

  1. 1. Agricultural Research for Crop and Livestock Value Chains Development: The IPMS Experience Dirk Hoekstra, Azage Tegegne and Berhanu Gebremedhin Livestock Live Talk, Addis Ababa, 28 March 2013
  2. 2. Seminar outline  Project design and implementation  Commodity development within a R4D framework  Project results and lessons
  3. 3. Project rationale and Goal  Ethiopian agricultural development strategy until 2000 - focused on food security and natural resource management  Early 2000, strategy was amended to included more commercial oriented agriculture  Need to (re-) orient small holder agricultural sector towards more market oriented agriculture.  Emergence of large scale commercial high tech farms and infrastructure support (ECEX) Goal - To contribute to improved agricultural productivity and production through market-oriented agricultural development, as a means for achieving improved and sustainable livelihoods for the rural population.
  4. 4. Project pillars • Commodity value chain development • Knowledge management • Capacity development • Research/promotion
  5. 5. Pilots in 10 Districts in 4 Regions
  6. 6. Project design • Research for development project conceived in the early 2000 at the request of the MoARD and CIDA • Impact (development) oriented project, which included funds for development activities
  7. 7. Project implementation  No multi location project research frame work at the start, as development interventions varied considerable by site and over time  Mostly full time staff dedicated to the project  Limited sub contracting of research components  Outsourcing of selected development activities to development partners/companies
  8. 8. The IPMS Commodity Development Approach in a R4D Framework
  9. 9. The Research Impact Pathway Resources (Staff time, finance, equipment/materials, transportation etc.) Activities (Problem identification, research design, implementation, evaluation) Outputs (technologies, institutional/ Organizational/policy recommendations, publications, briefs etc.) Outcomes (Research outputs are taken up/adopted by intended users) Impact (economic, social and environ- mental changes)
  10. 10. IPMS Action-oriented Research Approach Experimental Developmental (controlled setting) (uncontrolled setting)  Technology application Focus  Technology generation  Organizational issues  Institutional issues Methods  Lab-based  Diagnostic research  On-station  Action research  On-farm  Impact research
  11. 11. The Types of Research • Diagnostic – Research conducted to identify, describe, quantify value chain constraints and opportunities, and technological, organizational and institutional intervention requirements • Action Research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the development process and performance of a single or combination of interventions, which can be used to modify the interventions, and/or identify context specific adoption factors that can be used to scale out/up best practices • Impact research – Research aimed at generating qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the impact of interventions on economic, social and environmental conditions of farm households.
  12. 12. The Value System Consumption Trading Processing Research Transportation Trading Govt. policy regulation Post-harvest Communications handling Production input supply Production Tech. & business training & assistance Input Financial services supply Market information and intelligence
  13. 13. Value chain versus channels focus Agro-processing industry (Peri-)urban Urban specialized fluid consumers milk farmers Fluid milk traders Rural mixed crop and livestock Butter traders Rural consumers butter producers
  14. 14. Commodity development in R4D framework  Diagnostic studies and Identification of interventions  Planning and Implementation of interventions  Action research on interventions as follow up of diagnostic research  Adaptation/modification of interventions  Impact evaluation
  15. 15. Implementation of Commodity development interventions  IPMS facilitated the identification of market oriented commodities and required interventions  Interventions were validated by stakeholders  IPMS’s role limited to introducing and facilitating the implementation of interventions  ultimate implementation responsibility rested on the value chain stakeholders  IPMS focused on reorientation of the MOA’s extension system, value chain actors, service providers and the institutional environment
  16. 16. R4D outputs
  17. 17. R4D outputs along the value system
  18. 18. Promotion of R4D Outputs  Over 70, 000 hard copy publications  2000 DVDs distributed  IPMS website receives 4500 unique visitors per month
  19. 19. Results Participatory market-oriented commodity value chain development approach resulted in increased agricultural production, productivity, sales value and market participation and orientation of smallholders in the 10 PLWs
  20. 20. Revenue from market-oriented livestock enterprises Revenue (2009/10 prices) Million ETB Livestock enterprise 20054/0 2009/10 Growth Remark 6 rate (%) Improved dairy 2.2 6.5 195 5 PLWs, excluding urban dairy and butter-based local system Small ruminant 46 120 159 6 PLWs fattening Cattle fattening 44 207.5 867 7 PLWs Improved poultry 1.0 3.9 291 5 PLWs Improved apiculture 4.94 11.19 127 6 PLWs
  21. 21. Selected livestock value chain intervention results  Hormone assisted mass insemination  Crossbreeding Borana with highland Zebu  Communal grazing area development  Pullet production by women groups
  22. 22. Mass AI with hormones
  23. 23. Initial results hormone assisted mass insemination – Tigray & SNNPR Variables Awasaa-Dale Adigrat- Milkshed Mekelle Milkshed No. % No. % Total animals presented for 210 - 212 - synchronization No. animals treated with PGF2α 175 83.3 199 93.9 No. of cows that aborted - - 6 3.0 Final No. cows synchronized 175 100 193 97.0 No. of animals that responded to PGF2α 171 97.7 193 100.0 treatment Animals that died (after insemination) 3 1.8 - - Animas that did show up for pregnancy 5 2.9 - - diagnosis Interval to oestrus, hours NA - 45.13 - Pregnant animals 94 57.7 119 61.7
  24. 24. Suitability analysis for introduction of Borana cattle breed in Ethiopia
  25. 25. Borana x Highland Zebu crossbred calves in Metema
  26. 26. Grazing area improvement
  27. 27. Pullet production by women groups  5 groups with 15-20 members each = 80  Each group member raised 50 day old chicks  Vaccination by women  Credit Birr 1300/woman  Mortality rate 13%  Sales price 4 month old pullet Birr 50  Average return/woman farmer Birr 833/4mnts  Loan repayment 100%
  28. 28. Lessons learned  The nature of the value chain development approach is that several interventions need to be combined in order to achieve impact – no stand alone good practices  Value chain development is a process which is context specific and evolves over time  Over time, value chain development can be driven by the actors with research and development organizations in a supporting role
  29. 29. Lessons learned  Participatory approach, combined with internal and external knowledge led to identification of new technologies and interventions  Failures were observed however, due to market failure and/or insufficient returns  Focusing on the value chain as compared to a specific channel, can bring more farmers into market oriented agriculture.
  30. 30. Lessons learned  The extension system can play a key role in developing market oriented development, by developing their skills beyond the present production skills and being responsive  Farmer to farmer exchange of knowledge was an effective tool used by the project  Use of modern IT can contribute significantly to enhance knowledge and skills of extension staff as well as value chin actors
  31. 31. Lessons learned  Achieving a more gender balanced development is a slow process, which can be put in motion through  awareness creation based on gender assessment,  involvement of women in capacity development, knowledge management activities  Involvement of women in decision making institutions  Focusing on gender sensitive commodities and value chain interventions
  32. 32. Three Key Messages  Technology generation by itself is not enough to achieve developmental outcomes and impact  R4D can be combined well in a research environment  Knowledge management and capacity development are key elements for the extension system to be responsive in transforming subsistence agriculture in to sustainable economic development
  33. 33. Thank you!