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Livestock feed as a component of smallholder systems: Tradeoffs in biomass/crop residues use

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Bruno Gérard

FAP Symposium on Feed in Smallholder Systems, Luang Prabang, Laos, 18-19 November 2010

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Livestock feed as a component of smallholder systems: Tradeoffs in biomass/crop residues use

  1. 1. Livestock feed as a component of smallholder systems: Tradeoffs in biomass/crop residues use<br />Bruno Gérard<br />FAP Symposium on Feed in Smallholder Systems <br />LuangPrabang, Laos, 18-19 November 2010<br />
  2. 2. Key Issues<br />Mixed crop-livestock small farms is a large proportion of farming enterprises in developing countries<br />Changes dues to external drivers such as demographic pressure, development of urban markets, increased demand for crop and livestock products, climate variability and change, biofuel… <br /><ul><li>changes in the use of biomass
  3. 3. increasing importance of CR to feed livestock, emerging CR marketing opportunities
  4. 4. tradeoff in most systems: short term benefits of using crop residues to feed livestock versus leaving the crop residues in the field to maintain/improve soil productivity (nutrient balance, erosion control, and soil health)</li></li></ul><li>(From Herrero et al. 2010)<br />
  5. 5. Manure<br />Urines<br />Manure<br />Urines<br />RANGELAND<br />CROPLAND<br />Fertilizers<br />Fertilizers<br />Feed<br />LIVESTOCK<br />Feed<br />HOUSEHOLD<br />MARKETS<br />Residues<br />Weeds<br />Live<br />animals<br />Meat<br />Milk<br />Forage<br />Food<br />Wood<br />Grains<br />Residues<br />Weeds<br />Live<br />animals<br />Meat<br />Milk<br />Forage<br />Food<br />Wood<br />Grains<br />From Powell et al. 1996<br />
  6. 6. Feedtrade<br />Specialization<br />Crop/livestock integration at the household level<br />Integration<br />Conflict risks<br />SA/SEA<br />SSA<br />SSA peri-urban<br />Level of system’s intensification<br />Demographic pressure <br />
  7. 7. 1966<br />2004<br />
  8. 8. What we know/what has been done<br /><ul><li>Nutrient cycling in mixed farming systems
  9. 9. Dual-purpose crops
  10. 10. Monitoring of the evolution of some mixed farming systems
  11. 11. Feed deficit assessments at various scales (but gaps)
  12. 12. Conceptual frameworks and models (do they serve the purpose?)
  13. 13. Conservation agriculture research
  14. 14. Feed markets (but incomplete)</li></ul>- On going SLP global project on CR tradeoffs <br />But how much research findings have been put into use? <br />
  15. 15. Gaps and challenges <br /><ul><li> Dealing with complexity at different space and time scales and responding to site and household specific conditions looking at short term returns of resources allocation
  16. 16. How to better articulate research findings in meaningful way for development
  17. 17. Policy
  18. 18. Decision support for development interventions
  19. 19. Participatory research addressing farm and landscape scale issues
  20. 20. Long term effects of CR management on soil productivity
  21. 21. Livestock and conservation agriculture? </li></li></ul><li>Way forward?<br />Sustainable intensification of mixed farming systems<br />Key role of external inputs<br />- Fertilizer -> increase biomass quantity<br /><ul><li>Dual purpose crops -> increase feed quantity and quality
  22. 22. Better livestock management (breed, health, feed)</li></ul>Combined with better market and private sector participation<br /><ul><li>Increase animal offtake
  23. 23. Reduce pressure on biomass? </li></ul>Need for enabling environments and novel participatory approaches (IP and/or something else?) <br />
  24. 24. Pretty strong drivers so better not ‘swim against the flow’!<br />

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