IWMI experiences on potential irrigated value chains development for the LIVES project
IWMI experiences on potential size and Minimum of 30 font irrigated value chains development for lines title maximum of 3 the LIVES project Philippe LEMPERIERE IWMI/LIVES team LIVES Commodity Value Chain Development Inception Workshop Addis Ababa, 21–24 January 2013
Content1. Rationale for investing in irrigation and smallholders2. Selection value chains and potential interventions3. Potential interventions in irrigated value chains4. Cross-cutting issues: environment and gender5. Opportunities for making a difference Conclusion
1. Rationale for investing in irrigation and smallholders in Ethiopia
Rationale for investing in irrigation• Overpopulation in some agro-ecological zones: more crops per unit of land and per capita.• Climate : buffer against rainfall variability and production of dry season cash crops.• Land degradation : irrigation and watershed management can reverse degradation• Low farmer productivity: increased productivity in conjunction with improved farming techniques and improved VCs.• Gender: enabling rural women to increase their cash income and diversify family food sources.
Rationale for investing in smallholdersThere are many evidences that smallholder agriculturehas the potential for:1) Increasing production to respond to market demand through improving productivity using locally adapted technologies2) Reducing poverty provided commodities prices are fair, stable3) Sustainable natural resources management through communities mobilization and organization.In Ethiopia, smallholders private (traditional) irrigationis more important than modern irrigation in terms ofdeveloped area and number of farmers involved.
2. Selection of value chains and potential interventions
Commodity value chains Business support services Consumption and enabling environment Livestock and Retailing Irrigated Trading Value chains for Research Ethiopian Processing Govt. Policy/regulation Smallholders Trading Transportation Postharvest Communications handling Processing Production Market support services- - Input Extension Service Supply Financial services Input supply
Criteria for selection of irrigation VCs1) Potential of the VC for increasing the value added, incomes of VC actors and creating jobs in rural areas2) Potential for significant increase of irrigated farming productivity and of production sold on the market3) Existence of private or public business support services wanting to improve & develop their activities4) Opportunities for technologies improvement and institutional or organizational innovations
Preliminary assessment of irrigation systemsWhy:• Select irrigation systems in project areas• Select VC (horticulture and fodder crops)• Select and prioritize interventions• Baseline data to measure impacts of project interventionsWhat to assess:• Water availability and seasonal variations• Irrigation infrastructures and equipments functionality• Organizational efficiency for O&M• Productivity of Irrigated agriculture• Business support servicesHow:• Participatory diagnosis and action planning (IWMI methodology)
3. Potential interventions in irrigated value chains
Potential interventions in irrigated VCs (1)Production• Access to improved seeds and seedlings• Irrigated agriculture technologies including on-farm water management• Crops staggering – adapt crop calendars to market demand• Pests and diseases control• Increase of labor productivity (farming tools and equipments)Post harvest handling• Better practices to respond to market demand : quality of product: hygiene, level of impurities, storage, packaging, etc.
Potential interventions in irrigated VCs (2)Marketing• Strengthening market groups or cooperatives• Improve market information• Quality control• Contract agreements between farmers and traders: quantity, quality, delivery date, (price ?).• Regulations related to contractO&M of irrigation systems – WUAs (based on existing practices)• Tools for management of Water, maintenance and finance• WUAs Internal rules and regulations and communication : social management tools• Address irrigation subsidies & cost recovery issues; infrastructure improvement issues
AWUAs Proclamation• Public law organizations• Mission strictly limited to O&M and non commercial organizations• Compulsory membership linked to land rights• Mandatory establishment in public schemes• Legal & financial supervision by the State• Support of local government to enforce by- laws, internal rules & regulations, sanctions
Social & environmental issuesIrrigation development can negatively impact downstream usersand cause environmental damages.Conflicts between upstream and downstream water usersalready exist in EthiopiaInterventions – Watershed level• Secure water rights: o Information on water availability and water use in space and time; o Community-based organization (WUAs) at watershed level, rules and regulations to allocate water, prevent and mitigate conflicts.• Site specific land rehabilitation and conservation measures
Gender equitySpecific attention should be given to women head ofhouseholds = farm decision makers with respect to:• Access to land in irrigation schemes command area• Access to technologies• Access to irrigation water – water rights• Inclusion or exclusion in forum where WUAs rules and regulations are debated and set• Inclusion and exclusion as WUAs leadersInterventions• Gender-based performance analysis (IWMI methodology)• Designing, implementing, monitoring affirmative actions
Motorized pumpsEncouraging enterprises that combine the supply ofpumps and technical support to farmers is anopportunity to greatly improve the use of motorizedpumps and increase farmers’ income.How to explore:1. Support businesses that sell pumps and offer after sales services2. Credit arrangement and supporting policies enabling farmers to purchase pumps3. Strengthen knowledge and skills of extension services officers to provide practical guidance on the use of pumps
Manual well drillingEstablishing manual well drilling enterprises to providelow-cost access to groundwater is an opportunity forexpanding irrigated agriculture.How to explore:1) Set up a program to train and certified manual well drillers and help set up businesses2) Sector supply chains for spare parts, drilling equipment, pumps3) Develop financial services to support value chain4) Raise awareness among smallholders to create demand
Agro-ecology technologiesAgro-ecology technologies are an opportunity forincreasing smallholders production and income usingless expensive agro-chemicals and more locallyavailable resources and for protecting theenvironment. (and having healthier food).How to explore1) Review existing agro-ecology technologies in Ethiopia and other countries that are promising for adaptation in project areas.2) Test promising CA technologies3) Training and dissemination activities4) Monitoring
Contract farming or outgrower schemesContract farming is an opportunity for improvingfarmers’ access to market, inputs, and improvedtechnologies.But Africa is replete with many examples that havefailed (trust, information asymmetries, transactioncosts).How to explore1) Learn lessons from experience in other countries; Kenya.2) Assess interest of commercial farmers in project areas3) Prepare model of contracts for negotiation4) Monitoring contract implementation5) Design policy recommendations for arbitration and regulation
ConclusionWe can change the face of irrigation in Ethiopia. Let’sdo it through research - action aiming at:1) Increasing smallholders’ access to inputs and markets2) Promoting locally adapted improved irrigated agriculture technologies3) Improving extension and business support services4) Strengthening WUAs and support services for better irrigation productivity and sustainability5) Securing smallholders’ water rights and sustainable management of natural resources6) Unleashing the potential of Ethiopian women