Linking farmers to markets: Patterns of market participation, decision making and intra-household income management


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Presented by Jemimah Njuki at the Global Conference on Women in Agriculture, New Delhi, India. 13-15 March 2012

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  • In Kenya, in 89%, 71% and 63% of the households eggs milk and chicken were mainly sold by women. In Tanzania, in 66.7%, 53.3% and 40.7% of the households, eggs, milk and chicken were mainly sold by women.In very few households did women sell live animals (11.1% for cattle and 8.8% for sheep and goats)
  • For example 46% of income from milk was managed by women in Tanzania
  • Linking farmers to markets: Patterns of market participation, decision making and intra-household income management

    1. 1. Linking Women Farmers to Markets:Patterns of Market Participation, Decision Making and Intra- household Income Management JemimahNjuki Team Leader: Poverty, Gender and Impact Presented at the Global Conference on Women in Agriculture New Delhi, India. 13-15 March 2012
    2. 2.  There is evidence that income under the control of women is more likely to be used to improve family welfare (family food onsumption, education, child nutrition etc)—Quisumbing et al, 1995, FAO, 2006) ◦ An increase in women’s income of USD 10 achieves the same health and nutrition benefits as in increase in men’s income of USD110 Women are significantly excluded from markets and opportunities for them to move from subsistence to market oriented agriculture are much lower Linking women farmers to markets is a critical pathway to women’s economic empowerment—but participation in markets does not always lead to economic empowerment of women Economic empowerment is also not sufficient for women’s full empowerment—legal and political rights, voice, reproductive rights etc
    3. 3. Approach Advantages for women Disadvantages for womenContract Guaranteed purchases at pre-set prices Contracts with farm owners (registeredschemes Sales often at farm gate owners who most often are men)Out grower Support with technical services, inputs Possible hijacks by early adopters/schemes and market information leaders Close interaction with large firms for Contracts done with farm owners transfer of skills and knowledge (registered owners who most often are men)Group based Group dynamics and collective action Domination by leaders/lack of groupapproaches Women can gain confidence, gain commitment, non sustainability leadership skills Production still individual and in most Approaches build in capacity building in cases under the control of men different aspects including financial literacyCo-operatives Women have voice Women might get loans but my not Better organization and more bargaining have usufruct right power leading to higher prices Registration may be for heads of Easier access to services and inputs households and women do not get the through such arrangements as such as full benefits of membership bulk input purchase Availability of informal revolving loans and government recognitionParticipatory, Women are given voice, ability to Women’s concerns might not bebottom up influence approach according to skills factored into community demandscommunity Capacity building is central Scale is an issue, so women accessdevelopment Starts from where women are, gradually sustainable markets, get skills butapproaches building skills and capacity and therefore volumes may be low more sustainable
    4. 4.  A focus on different approaches for linking smallholder farmers to Collective markets Unitary Household Household Model ModelResearch issues What types of markets are women Non Co-operative Cooperative Common welfare accessing / not accessing and why? function Pooling of resources What is the distributional impact of Head is altruist participation in different livestock value chains? Individual autonomy Choice of acting a Individual preferences individuals or join What lessons can we learn from Sub-economies “mine, yours, ours evidence on key ingredients of an effective approach for linking women Measure impacts at household Measure impacts at farmers to markets level individual level
    5. 5.  In Kenya, men owned 10 times more cattle than women; for every 1 goat owned by women, men owned 4 goats In Tanzania, men owned 18 times more cattle than women; for every 1 goat owned by women, men owned 14 goats; men owned one and a half times more improved chicken than women
    6. 6. Kenya 100% Tanzania 100% 80% 80%% of households 60% 60% 40% 40% 20% 0% 20% 0% Chicken Eggs Cattle Milk Shoats Honey Men Women Joint Men  High participation of women in sale of livestock products (eggs and milk) and very low participation in sale of livestock (cattle, sheep, goats)  Women access less types of markets, more often farm gate due to constraints in time and mobility, transport assets etc. These markets have lower prices
    7. 7. 100% Kenya  In Kenya, low income80% management by60% women across species40% and products20% 0% Chicken Eggs Cattle Milk Shoats Honey Men Women Joint  Similar patterns in Tanzania but more Tanzania management of income 100% from milk and honey % income share 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Chicken Eggs Cattle Milk Shoats Honey Total Men Women Jointly
    8. 8. % income share to women 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 Farmgate-Other… Farmgate- other… Farmgate-Traders Chicken Farmgate- traders Delivered to… Chicken Delivered to… Farmgate-Other… Farmgate- other… Farmgate-Traders Eggs Eggs Delivered to… Delivered to… Farmgate- other… Farmgate-Other… Farmgate- traders Farmgate-Traders Kenya Village market Sheep and goats Village market Tanzania Sheep and goats Farmgate-Other… Farmgate- other… Honey Honey Delivered to… Farmgate- traders Farmgate-Other… Farmgate- other…Sales Cattle Farmgate-Traders Farmgate- traders Cattle Sales Farmgate-Other… Village market Farmgate-Traders Farmgate- other… Milk Milk Delivered to… Delivered to… traders markets or share when delivered to at farm gate cattle due to sold at village higher income • Differences less clear for sales of product was sold sheep, goats and compared to when • Women managed a ownership patterns
    9. 9. Tanzania 120 Kenya 100 100 90 80% income share to women 80 70 60 60 50 40 30 40 20 10 0 20 Men Men Men Men Men Men Women Women Women Women Women Women 0 Men Men Men Men Men Men Women Women Women Women Women Women Honey Chicken Eggs Sheep Cattle Milk and Sales Cattle Milk Chicken Eggs Sheep and Honey goats Sales goats• When women sold (physically or did the transaction), they managed a higher income share (for both products and species)
    10. 10.  In Tanzania, income share to women was lower for high income products and higher for low income products 1600 35  Research in Malawi 1400 30 showing income management byTotal amount (USD) 1200 % share of women 25 women declining as 1000 20 800 enterprise earns more 15 600 money 10 400 200 5 0 0 2003/4 2004/5 2005/6 2006/7
    11. 11.  Approaches that build capacity of women farmers to understand markets-financial literacy, negotiation skills, access to inputs, information and supportive policies Profitable and sustainable to avoid engaging women’s time in non-profitable enterprises Address women’s specific constraints and opportunities e.g access to credit, inputs and output markets etc Multiple types of markets-formal or informal, away or farm gate to allow for choice and different women’s circumstances Empowering—women can make choices about enterprises, types of markets etc Engage men and women to achieve broader changes in gender relations –avoid male appropriation Build on collectives ensuring that these can benefit from engagement Evaluate impacts at both individual and household level
    12. 12.  The Goal of Pathways is to increase poor women farmers’ productivity and empowerment in more equitable agriculture systems at scale. Working with 11000 collectives in six countries- India, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Malawi, Ghana and Mali Figure 2: KEY COMPONENTS OF THE PATHWAYS PROGRAM’S GOAL MORE SECURE AND RESILIENT LIVELIHOODS (FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY, COPING AND ADAPTING ABILITY) PRODUCTIVITY EQUITY EMPOWERMENT (includes profitability)
    13. 13. Thank you for your attention