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Community-based rangeland management in light of recent developments in Commons Theory

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Presented by Lance W. Robinson and Irene N. Nganga at the 17th Global Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons, Lima, Peru, 1-5 July 2019

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Community-based rangeland management in light of recent developments in Commons Theory

  1. 1. Community-based rangeland management in light of recent developments in Commons Theory Lance W. Robinson and Irene Nganga 17th Global Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons 1 to 5 July 2019 Lima, Peru
  2. 2. Commons theory • Four property types: – Private property – State property – Open access – Commons • Ostrom design principle no. 1: clearly defined resource and social group boundaries • Open access is to be avoided
  3. 3. Influence of commons scholarship • Community-based conservation (CBC) • Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) • FAOs voluntary guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure (VGGT) • In Africa, growing trend toward constitutional provisions and legislation recognizing communal land tenure • Including in pastoral rangelands
  4. 4. The Paradox of Pastoral Tenure • Fernandez-Gimenez (2002) • Action is needed to secure communal tenure rights for pastoralists • But policy interventions that do this seem to always undermine the flexibility and fuzziness that are quintessential features of pastoralism
  5. 5. Many traditional pastoralist systems don’t conform to mainstream thinking • Spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and forage compels mobility • Traditional pastoralist governance systems characterized by: – fuzzy and flexible group and territorial boundaries – emphasis on access rather than ownership and exclusion – yet, often without a tragedy
  6. 6. New models proposed for collective governance in pastoral systems 1. Open Property Regimes (e.g., Moritz 2016) e.g. Northern Cameroon. • Open access is not lack of rules; open access is the rule • Creation of boundaries is resisted. • Systems of management of resources are resisted. • Yet no sign of a tragedy
  7. 7. New models proposed for collective governance in pastoral systems(cont.) 2. Complex Mosaic Regimes (e.g., Robinson 2019) e.g. Borana of southern Ethiopia. • A gradation of clarity and strength of boundaries and property rights • Property rights unbundled (Schlager and Ostrom 1992) by type, timing, and governance actor • Overlaps in territories, and rights • Multi-level fuzziness in decision-making authority • Governance mechanisms other than property rights institutions feature prominently (deliberative forums, negotiation, land use planning).
  8. 8. 3 pastoral communities Shompole/ Olkiramatian Group Ranches Il’Ngwesi Group Ranch Dirre Dheeda CONTEXT Country Kenya Kenya Ethiopia Rainfall 550 mm. CV=27.4% 810 mm. CV=28.8% 614 mm. CV=31.3% Encapsulation Med.-High Low-Med. Low Security of tenure High Med.-High Low Conflict Low – Med. Med.-High High BASELINE GOVERNANCE SYSTEM The rangeland community Commons Commons Complex Mosaic Regime The wider landscape Somewhat circumscribed/ buffered Nested w/i larger landscape, diverse ethnic groups having OPRs, CMRs Nested w/i larger landscape of CMRs, same ethnic group
  9. 9. Interventions and Challenges • All three cases had interventions that, at least in the early stages, were essentially CBNRM interventions. • Shompole/Olkiramatian is arguably the most successful case. They are somewhat isolated and therefore protected. • Dirre has struggled to be understood by other actors, as well as struggling with a jealous state • In north-central Kenya, Il’Ngwesi and other communities have struggled. Local community governance not respected by the wider pastoral communities. CBNRM not adapted to an CMR context.
  10. 10. Evolution of Approaches • Approaches in Ethiopia (Dirre case) evolving toward being more explicitly multi-level, as well as building trust with the government actors. • Approaches in north-central Kenya evolving toward: o More multi-level interventions. o More emphasis on planning approaches; less on “hard governance”/1st design principle
  11. 11. Policy Options for the Paradox of Pastoral Tenure • A theory of governance of common pool resources in pastoral rangelands is needed. • Such a theory, if empirically grounded, may provide insights into how to address the paradox of pastoral tenure. • For example, scale of communal tenure recognition at one (large) scale; resource governance at multiple scales.
  12. 12. References COMPLEX MOSAIC REGIMES: Robinson, Lance W. 2019. Open Property and Complex Mosaics: Variants in Tenure Regimes Across Pastoralist Social-Ecological Systems. International Journal of the Commons, v. 13(1) :805-827. URL: https://www.thecommonsjournal.org/articles/903/ OPEN ACCESS REGIMES: Moritz, M. (2016). Open property regimes. International Journal of the Commons, 10(2), 688– 708. https://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.719 PARADOX OF PASTORAL TENURE: Fernández-Giménez, M.E. 2002. Spatial and Social Boundaries and the Paradox of Pastoral Land Tenure: A Case Study from Postsocialist Mongolia, Human Ecology, 30(1), pp. 49–78. UNBUNDLED RIGHTS: Schlager, E., and E. Ostrom. 1992. Property-rights regimes and natural resources: a conceptual analysis. Land economics 68(3):249–262.
  13. 13. Acknowledgement This work benefitted from funding from: • the CGIAR Research Programs on: o Livestock led by the International Livestock Research Institute, and o Policies, Institutions and Markets led by the International Food Policy Research Institute, and • the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the European Commission through the “Taking Successes in Land Restoration to Scale” project.
  14. 14. CGIAR Research Program on Livestock livestock.cgiar.org The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock aims to increase the productivity and profitability of livestock agri-food systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and eggs more available and affordable across the developing world. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. The program thanks all donors and organizations which globally support its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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