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Recommendations for Improving Vaccination    Coverage in the Bali Dog PopulationEcohealth 2012 conference, Kunming, China,...
Affiliation1.   Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies2.   Bogor Agricultural University3.   Disease Investig...
Introduction• Rabies in the island of Bali is widespread• 3 island-wide vaccination campaigns, the  latest just recently f...
Dog Population in BaliRestrained        Free Roaming                                  Un-         Owned Dogs              ...
Method Household survey  owned dog population Banjar transects  free-roaming population      Foto Survei Door to Door ...
Map of Bali= observed villages                                    6
Results          7
Household Survey  17,376 owned dogs; 8,588 owners       Category        Urban   Suburban   Rural   OverallGender1. Male  ...
Vaccination in Owned Dogs100%        10%                           100%        9%                          20%80%         ...
Banjar Transect1,972 free-roaming dogs      Category         Urban   Suburban   Rural   OverallGender1. Male             ...
Why is Coverage in Free-Roaming             Dogs Low?• Also include unowned or difficult to vaccinate  dogs.• Status infer...
Effects of Culling• 4 villages had culled dogs in the last 3 months                                           84%      No ...
Effects of Culling (2)                      28%                                           97%    No               3%      ...
Effects of Culling (3)• Culling only stimulates population turnover  and culled dogs will likely be replaced with  unvacci...
Recommendation• Put more effort to vaccinate free-roaming  dogs in suburban and rural areas.• Target juveniles through bet...
Acknowledgement• International Development Research  Centre (IDRC)• International Livestock Research Institute  (ILRI)• Ba...
THANK YOU            17
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Recommendations for improving vaccination coverage in the Bali dog population

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Presented by Arief, R.A., Jatikusumah, A., Widyastuti, M.D.W., Sunandar, Basri, C., Putra, A.A.G., Willyanto, I., Estoepangestie, S., Mardiana, I., Gilbert, J. and Hampson, K. at the Ecohealth 2012 conference held at Kunming, China on 15-18 October 2012

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Recommendations for improving vaccination coverage in the Bali dog population

  1. 1. Recommendations for Improving Vaccination Coverage in the Bali Dog PopulationEcohealth 2012 conference, Kunming, China,15-18 October 2012 Arief, R.A.1, Jatikusumah, A.1, Widyastuti, M.D.W.1, Sunandar1, Basri, C.1,2, Putra, A.A.G.3, Willyanto, I.4, Estoepangestie, S.5, Mardiana, I.6, Gilbert, J.7 and Hampson, K.8 1
  2. 2. Affiliation1. Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies2. Bogor Agricultural University3. Disease Investigation Centre Denpasar4. InI Veterinary Service5. Airlangga University6. Bali Provincial Livestock and Animal Health Office7. International Livestock Research Institute8. University of Glasgow 2
  3. 3. Introduction• Rabies in the island of Bali is widespread• 3 island-wide vaccination campaigns, the latest just recently finished• Maintaining high coverage is key to successful rabies control• Mass dog vaccination is difficult and population turnover erodes coverage 3
  4. 4. Dog Population in BaliRestrained Free Roaming Un- Owned Dogs owned Dogs 4
  5. 5. Method Household survey  owned dog population Banjar transects  free-roaming population Foto Survei Door to Door 5
  6. 6. Map of Bali= observed villages 6
  7. 7. Results 7
  8. 8. Household Survey  17,376 owned dogs; 8,588 owners Category Urban Suburban Rural OverallGender1. Male 63.0% 72.2% 76.2% 70.4%2. Female 37.0% 27.8% 23.8% 29.6%Age1. Adult 81.7% 87.5% 83.1% 83.5%2. Juvenile 18.3% 12.5% 16.9% 16.5%Restraining of dogs1. Restrained 71.2% 16.1% 8.0% 33.6%2. Free-roaming 28.8% 83.9% 92.0% 66.4%Vaccination coverage 88.8% 83.7% 78.7% 83.6% 8
  9. 9. Vaccination in Owned Dogs100% 10% 100% 9% 20%80% 80% 56%60% 60% 90% 91%40% 80% 40% 44%20% 20% 0% 0% Restrained Free-roaming Adult Juvenile Vaccinated No Vaccinated No • 10% higher coverage in restrained dogs • significantly higher coverage in adults (91%) than juveniles (<1yr, 44%) 9
  10. 10. Banjar Transect1,972 free-roaming dogs Category Urban Suburban Rural OverallGender1. Male 70.3% 80.8% 82.2% 76.8%2. Female 29.7% 19.2% 17.8% 23.1%Age1. Adult 97.0% 94.9% 96.7% 96.6%2. Juvenile 3.0% 5.1% 3.3% 3.4%Vaccination coverage 37.5% 21.4% 27.8% 30.9% 10
  11. 11. Why is Coverage in Free-Roaming Dogs Low?• Also include unowned or difficult to vaccinate dogs.• Status inferred from collar: – Known to fall off – Difficult dogs only painted  Underestimation 11
  12. 12. Effects of Culling• 4 villages had culled dogs in the last 3 months 84% No 84% Vaccination 16% Adult Juvenile 83% Culling 79% 21% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Owned Dog Population 12
  13. 13. Effects of Culling (2) 28% 97% No 3% Vaccination Adult Juvenile 49% 97%Culling 3% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Free-Roaming Dog Population 13
  14. 14. Effects of Culling (3)• Culling only stimulates population turnover and culled dogs will likely be replaced with unvaccinated new adults.• In long term, there is no positive benefit of culling. Dog sterilization would have more benefits as it could stabilize coverage by reducing births. 14
  15. 15. Recommendation• Put more effort to vaccinate free-roaming dogs in suburban and rural areas.• Target juveniles through better planning, advertisement and public awareness.• Adopt other methods for population control, such as sterilization.• Improve collar endurance for better identification of vaccinated animals and reassure communities of campaign achievements. 15
  16. 16. Acknowledgement• International Development Research Centre (IDRC)• International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)• Bali Provincial Livestock and Animal Health Office 16
  17. 17. THANK YOU 17

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