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Why animal source foods need to be part of the global food security and nutrition agenda

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Presented by Lawrence Haddad (Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition) at the International Tropical Agriculture Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 11−13 November 2019

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Why animal source foods need to be part of the global food security and nutrition agenda

  1. 1. Why animal source foods need to be part of the global food security and nutrition agenda Lawrence Haddad Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition International Tropical Agriculture Conference Brisbane, Australia November 11-13, 2019
  2. 2. Simple message 1: Animal source foods are essential for infant and young child growth State of the World’s Children 2019, UNICEF
  3. 3. 7.3 4.8 1.9 6 0 Any ASF Any grains/roots/tuber Any Legumes/nuts Any fruit Any vegetables Percentage reduction in stunting rates from consuming a food from the food groups below in the previous 24 hours (49 countries in Africa, Asia and LAC) Animal Sourced Foods and Child Stunting D. Headey, K. Hirvonen, and J. Hoddinott (2018) Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 100(5): 1302–1319 %
  4. 4. % of children under 5 with micronutrient deficiencies State of the World’s Children 2019, UNICEF Simple message 2: Too many children under 5 have micronutrient deficiencies Hint: value add of ASF consumption is mainly about minerals & vitamins, not protein
  5. 5. The cat amongst the pigeons
  6. 6. Figure 1 in the EAT Lancet report https://eatforum.org/eat-lancet- commission/ South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa are well below the EAT Lancet Commission Reference Diet Recommendations for Animal Source Foods So, what’s the problem?
  7. 7. http://www.healthdata.org/australia The top 10 risk factors that drive Australia’s death and disability combined Diet is related to 5 out 10 risk factors
  8. 8. http://www.healthdata.org/nepal The top 10 risk factors that drive Nepal’s death and disability combined Diet is related to 6 out 10 risk factors
  9. 9. Aleksandrowicz L, Green R, Joy EJM, Smith P, Haines A (2016) The Impacts of Dietary Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land Use, Water Use, and Health: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE Diets that are better for health tend to have lower greenhouse gas emissions, but with lots of variability Virtually all diets are from high income countries
  10. 10. And Low Carbon Diets are not always Healthy 16 High Income Country studies, 100 dietary patterns, many more GHG-nutrient links Do low-carbon-emission diets lead to higher nutritional quality and positive health outcomes? A systematic review of the literature. Charlotte LR Payne et. al 2016. Public Health Nutrition: 19(14), 2654–2661 57/84 low GHG-diet links had reduced salt & saturated fat 38/55 low GHG-diet links were high in sugar 129/158 low GHG-diet links were low in essential micronutrients
  11. 11. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed The Complex Picture
  12. 12. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed Health outcomes Stunting and Wasting Premature Mortality, Diabetes, Heart Disease Environ- mental outcomes Greenhouse Gases Other Environmental Effects Livelihoods Poverty reduction, economic development The Complex Picture
  13. 13. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed Health outcomes Stunting and Wasting Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Premature Mortality, Diabetes, Heart Disease Environ- mental outcomes Greenhouse Gases Other Environmental Effects Livelihoods Poverty reduction, economic development The Complex Picture
  14. 14. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed Health outcomes Stunting and Wasting Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Premature Mortality, Diabetes, Heart Disease Environ- mental outcomes Greenhouse Gases Other Environmental Effects Livelihoods Poverty reduction, economic development Very important Very important, with great potential Very important, with great potential The Complex Picture
  15. 15. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed Health outcomes Stunting and Wasting Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Premature Mortality, Diabetes, Heart Disease Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Increases, but also not so cut and dried ?? Strongly Increases Environ- mental outcomes Greenhouse Gases Other Environmental Effects Livelihoods Poverty reduction, economic development Very important Very important, with great potential Very important, with great potential The Complex Picture
  16. 16. Plant Source Foods Animal Source Foods Cereals, roots and tubers Fruits, vegetables, pulses etc. Non Meat Meat Red White Processed Health outcomes Stunting and Wasting Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Premature Mortality, Diabetes, Heart Disease Reduces Strongly Reduces ?? Increases, but also not so cut and dried ?? Strongly Increases Environ- mental outcomes Greenhouse Gases Low emissions Low emissions Lower emissions than red meat High emissions, but highly contested Lower emissions than red meat ?? Other Environmental Effects ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Livelihoods Poverty reduction, economic development Very important Very important, with great potential Very important, with great potential The Complex Picture
  17. 17. What is a stressed out policymaker to do? • Reduce ASF consumption • Continue to reduce the GHG emissions of ASF production • Reduce ASF consumption (although win may not be as big as many think) High Income Country Improve human health Improve planetary health Policy aim
  18. 18. What is a stressed out policymaker to do? • Reduce ASF consumption • Increase ASF consumption for nutritionally vulnerable groups with low ASF consumption • Reduce ASF consumption for those with already high Western level consumption • Continue to reduce the GHG emissions of ASF production • Reduce ASF consumption (although win may not be as big as many think) • Reduce GHG emission of ASF production (big potential gains) • Livelihood impacts from enhanced productivity should be positive • Animal welfare effects need to be monitored High Income Country Low Income Country Improve human health Improve planetary health Policy aim
  19. 19. Why animal source foods need to be part of the global food security and nutrition agenda Lawrence Haddad Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition International Tropical Agriculture Conference Brisbane, Australia November 11-13, 2019
  20. 20. Other Implications • Important big caveats: have not looked at livelihoods or other environmental effects • Context is everything • A big Inequality agenda – Differentiated responsibilities and capacities to change consumption • Much more data and research needed in low and middle income countries on tradeoffs – Most data and research from high income settings – Establish consensus within cells & across them: Intergovernmental Panel on Agriculture & Food? • More university programs, journal articles and research calls that straddle the health and environment worlds – Still ships passing in the night – Big contributions of EAT Lancet report to bring them together
  21. 21. We Need to Elevate the Discourse • Issues are complex • The evidence base is thin • There is a lot of ideology mixed in • Competing interests are everywhere • Need to avoid demonising those who disagree with us— it sets everyone back
  22. 22. Thank you Especially for those who this work is being done for

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