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The quest for policy and public expenditure opportunities to support implementation of livestock and aquaculture interventions

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Presented by Robyn Alders, Johanna Wong, Doreen Anene, Scott Moreland, Hannah Reed, Belinda Richardson and David Heymann at the International Tropical Agriculture Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 11−13 November 2019

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The quest for policy and public expenditure opportunities to support implementation of livestock and aquaculture interventions

  1. 1. The quest for policy and public expenditure opportunities to support implementation of livestock and aquaculture interventions Robyn Alders1,2, Johanna Wong1, Doreen Anene1, Scott Moreland1, Hannah Reed3, Belinda Richardson3 and David Heymann1 International Tropical Agriculture Conference Brisbane, Australia, 11-13 November 2019 1. Centre for Global Health Security, Chatham House, London, UK 2. Development Policy Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia 3. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
  2. 2. Most of the world’s more than 570 million farms are small and family-run Small farms (less than 2 ha) operate about 12% of the world’s agricultural land Family farms operate about 75% of the world’s agricultural land Of approx. 770 million people surviving on less than USD 1.90 per day, about half depend directly on livestock for their livelihoods, frequently on land unsuitable for cropping Photo credits: Robyn Alders
  3. 3. LMICs account for about 80 percent of world aquaculture production Globalization of value chains and increasing demands for certification appear to be marginalizing small-scale producers in many countries Women play a significant role in aquaculture value chains Photo credits: World Fish Dominated by households who have ponds and operate aquaculture as an integrated component of their farming systems
  4. 4. Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs 4 The BMGF Livestock Initiative: a quick overview 2018 strategy • Recognise that market failures contribute to keeping small-scale producers poor • Seeking to understand how country-led policy and public expenditure can contribute to: - inclusive agricultural transformation - with empowered women and well-nourished families - transforming the economy • Focusing on market-oriented small-scale producers
  5. 5. Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs 5 Chatham House’s role in the current project To develop a policy-relevant decision toolkit to identify supportive smallholder aquaculture and livestock practices and value chains that deliver across the triple bottom line: Economic sustainability  Fair remuneration of family producers who are devoted stewards of land and water and who produce safe, nutritious food and other associated natural products  Fair payment of and conditions for those involved along value chains  Delivery of safe, nutrient-rich food and other natural products at prices affordable by consumers Environmental sustainability  Regenerative agricultural and aquaculture practices that capture carbon, increase soil and water quality and conserve and promote biodiversity  Ethical use and recycling of key nutrients along value chains and food systems Social sustainability  Non-farming community endorses and values agricultural and aquaculture practices and value chains And to do so through a nutrition- and gender-sensitive lens
  6. 6. Prototype Decision Toolkit to BMGF: triangulation of evidence for policy action Global, regional and national policy literature review synthesis Peer-review group Public consultation Country case study findings National Roundtables with guided scenario discussions Triangulation of findings and analysis Identification of examples of enabling or inhibitory policies and policy-relevant investment options and trade offs in support of gender- and nutrition-sensitive economically, environmentally and socially sustainable animal (ruminant and poultry) and aquaculture (fresh and saltwater) systems presented to BMGF and case study countries Secondary data tool and agreed indicator checklist Key informant interview findings
  7. 7. Triangulation of findings – common themes Policy-related theme Lit Review Bangladesh RT Nigeria RT Inadequate attention to infectious disease including food safety and antimicrobial resistance Inadequate attention to feed and fodder Inadequate access to extension services Negative environmental impacts including climate change and weather variability Sub-optimal alignment of household economics and production, marketing, trade, value chains Insufficient attention to tailoring genetics and production systems to local situations Inadequate consultation and collaboration with stakeholders of different genders along supply chains and across sectors during policy-making process Seven most frequently mentioned themes arising from the global literature review and Bangladesh and Nigeria Roundtables. The darker the colour, the more frequently mentioned the theme.
  8. 8. Example of policy-related constraints and trade-offs in relation to smallholder income, marketing, nutrition security and climate change mitigation Inter-related themes Constraints including trade-offs and possible solutions Short-term Medium-term Long-term solutions Economics, trade, value chains, nutrition security and climate change mitigation Inadequate attention to market preferences and consumer buying power. Producers unable to cover capital investment costs when market lacking. Fewer smallholder producers operating as successful business enterprises. Compile and analyse comparative cost-effective metrics on production and marketing systems that enhance soil, water, plant, animal and human health. Inadequate costing of externalities and agroecological production systems. Expansion of non-agroecological production systems. Continued degradation of soil and water health. Inadequate monitoring and management of soil and water health. Producers paid by weight with nutrient composition a secondary concern. Continued expansion of production systems that yield food with less than optimal nutrient density and profiles. Employ appropriate 21st century technology and innovations to link livestock and aquaculture nutrient production, quality assurance practices and environmental impact to farm-gate and market prices. Smallholders lack bargaining power to command appropriate farm-gate prices for produce and input supplies. Smallholders remain price takers. Unable to care adequately for households, land and water assets. Food safety issues inadequately addressed and frequently benchmarked against standards developed for use in high socio-economic settings. Inadequate appropriate support blocks smallholders from meeting required standards and prevent access to more lucrative markets.
  9. 9. Example of policy-related constraints and trade-offs in relation to smallholder income, marketing, nutrition security and climate change mitigation Inter-related themes Constraints including trade-offs and possible solutions Short-term Medium-term Long-term solutions Economics, trade, value chains, nutrition security and climate change mitigation Inadequate attention to market preferences and consumer buying power. Producers unable to cover capital investment costs when market lacking. Fewer smallholder producers operating as successful business enterprises. Compile and analyse comparative cost-effective metrics on production and marketing systems that enhance soil, water, plant, animal and human health. Inadequate costing of externalities and agroecological production systems. Expansion of non-agroecological production systems. Continued degradation of soil and water health. Inadequate monitoring and management of soil and water health. Producers paid by weight with nutrient composition a secondary concern. Continued expansion of production systems that yield food with less than optimal nutrient density and profiles. Employ appropriate 21st century technology and innovations to link livestock and aquaculture nutrient production, quality assurance practices and environmental impact to farm-gate and market prices. Smallholders lack bargaining power to command appropriate farm-gate prices for produce and input supplies. Smallholders remain price takers. Unable to care adequately for households, land and water assets. Food safety issues inadequately addressed and frequently benchmarked against standards developed for use in high socio-economic settings. Inadequate appropriate support blocks smallholders from meeting required standards and prevent access to more lucrative markets.
  10. 10. Examples of forward-looking multisectoral policies AIM: To mobilise funds and align sectoral and cross-sectoral food and nutrition security related programmes AIM: To improve crop and livestock production practices for higher food security and farmer income while reducing emissions
  11. 11. Preliminary policy and policy-related conclusions and lessons Key findings Smallholder aquaculture and livestock production remain vital Smallholder aquaculture and livestock producers face similar challenges Huge deficiencies in quantity and quality of key data and relevant metrics available to decision- and policy-makers Participatory policy- making more likely to deliver feasible policies and improve compliance Absence of implementation plans, operational budgets and effective and participatory monitoring and evaluation contribute substantially to poor performance of existing policies Multiple contributions of smallholder animal- and fish-source food and products to national economy and human health insufficiently valued by decision- and policy-makers Aquaculture and livestock targets frequently included in national strategies but not well-represented in the current SDG targets Roundtable policy discussions involving diverse stakeholders crucial to understanding the opportunities and constraints faced by smallholder producers, value chain actors and relevant government officers Insufficient attention given to the role of livestock and aquaculture in agroecological practices Harmful disconnect between production and consumer buying power Increasing competition for nutrients between intensive livestock and aquaculture and human value chains
  12. 12. Thank you Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs Comments and questions most welcome Email: RAlders@chathamhouse.orgSource: Chittagong Veterinary & Animal Sciences University Acknowledgements Thanks go to the Governments of Bangladesh and Nigeria and to farmers, producers, practitioners and researchers globally who have contributed to the implementation of this project.
  13. 13. Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs 13 Bibliography • Alders, R.G., Dumas, S.E., Rukambile, E., Magoke, G., Maulaga, W., Jong, J. and Costa, R. 2018. Family poultry: multiple roles, systems, challenges and options for sustainable contributions to household nutrition security through a Planetary Health lens. Matern Child Nutr. 2018;14(S3):e12668, https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12668 • Alders, R.G., Ratanawongprasat, N., Schönfeldt, H. and Stellmach, D. 2018. A planetary health approach to secure, safe, sustainable food systems: workshop report. Food Security, 10(2):489-493 DOI 10.1007/s12571-018-0780-9 • Berners-Lee, M, et al. 2018. Current global food production is sufficient to meet human nutritional needs in 2050 provided there is radical societal adaptation. Elem Sci Anth, 6: 52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.310 • BMGF. 2018. Overview of the Livestock Initiative at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Seattle, USA. April 2018. • Chatham House. 2019. Roundtable Summary. Policy and public expenditure opportunities to support implementation of BMGF livestock and aquaculture strategy. Abuja, Nigeria. 7-8 July 2019. • Chatham House. 2019. Roundtable Summary. Policy and public expenditure opportunities to support implementation of BMGF livestock and aquaculture strategy. Dhaka, Bangladesh. 27-28 September 2019. • Garrett, R.D. et al. 2017. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis. Sustainability 9, 473; doi:10.3390/su9030473 • Lowder, S.K., Skoet, J. and Raney, T. 2016. The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide. World Development 87:16–29. • Philips, M. et al. 2016. Aquaculture Big Numbers. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 601. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. • Soils for Life: https://www.soilsforlife.org.au/resources/scientific_reports.html • Wingett, K., Allman-Farinelli, M. and Alders, R. 2019. Food loss and nutrition security: reviewing pre-consumer loss in Australian sheep meat value chains using a Planetary Health framework. CAB Reviews 13, No. 033; doi: 10.1079/PAVSNNR201813033 • Wong, J.T., de Bruyn, J., Bagnol, B., Grieve, H., Li, M., Pym, R., Alders, R.G. 2017. Small-scale poultry in resource-poor settings: A review. Global Food Security 15:43-52. DOI 10.1016/j.gfs.2017.04.003

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