National performance and plan for AI activities and services


Published on

Presented by Demere F/Mariam at the IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

National performance and plan for AI activities and services

  1. 1. National performance & Plan for AI activities & services By Demere F/Mariam, NAIC IPMS Workshop on Alternatives for Improving Field AI Delivery System to Enhance Beef and Dairy Production in Ethiopia ILRI, Addis Ababa, 24-25 August 2011
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Cattle genetic improvement through crossbreeding using AI technology had been going on in Ethiopia for well over the last four decades. </li></ul><ul><li>To organize and coordinate the overall AI activity National Artificial Insemination Center (NAIC) was established in 1981 with the objective of improving the milk productivity of the local cattle breeds,,. </li></ul><ul><li>The achievement made in the AI field service since 1984 had shown progress for the last 25 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The NAIC since 1991 E.C had produced 2,285,310 </li></ul><ul><li>and distributed 1,745,881 dozes of semen that enables 648606 total inseminations and 264377 birth of grade calves born only from AI application . </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that nearly 25% of milk supply to the major towns is from the graded crossbreed population (MOA). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of dozes of semen produced and distributed as well as the number of insemination at field level had steadily increased between 1998 to 2011 in the last decade, </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives of the center <ul><li>The over all objective of the center is to improve the milk productivity of local cattle breeds through A.I by production & distribution of quality semen from genetically improved bull. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Artificial Insemination <ul><li>A.I is the only practically applicable means to obtain maximum genetic gain. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides economic alternatives to a natural service with out danger of maintaining of breeding bulls. </li></ul><ul><li>It minimize danger of reproductive disease . </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient AI service requires </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment & highly skilled techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized logistics, implementation & Technical know how. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive and organized administration , </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation of stakeholders, (NGO’s research & Extension/development, dairy cooperatives organization & inseminators . </li></ul>
  5. 5. The role of NAIC and Regional-Bureau's (Responsibility & accountability ) <ul><li>In Ethiopia Presently, A.I had been launched in most regional states Oromiya, Amhara,SNNP,Tigray being the major regions, </li></ul><ul><li>Also Harari, Addis Ababa & Dire Dawa administrative council provide AI service in almost all Woredas/Kebeles. There is some efforts to start AI in Benshangul, Gambella, Somali & Afar. </li></ul><ul><li>With the change in the policy of the government, the role of NAIC had some what changed in the last decade . </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the NAIC has been mainly engaged in production, distribution of semen and liquid nitrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Importation of semen and bulls, bull management, </li></ul><ul><li>AI technician's trainers training , organizing workshops , training AI technicians for the newly emerging regional estates . </li></ul><ul><li>The regional bureaus had taken the major role of extension of AI services , </li></ul><ul><li>Providing AI technician training , distribution of stored semen and regionally produced liquid nitrogen , jointly with NAIC,& the monitoring, evaluation and reporting of AI service program . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Achievements <ul><li>The major achievements with the new policy are:- </li></ul><ul><li>Total inseminations had reached 102786 / yr and contributed to more than 32888 birth of grade calves/year in 2001E.C. </li></ul><ul><li>NAIC had trained a more than 800 AI technicians, 34 T rainers training & 28 regional livestock experts on nucleus herd management. And provides In - service training for AIT </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, Nearly more than 500 technicians had been trained in Oromiya, Amhara, Southern nations and nationalities states over the last 8 years period only. </li></ul><ul><li>The area coverage that receives the filed AI service had reached 50% of the total wereda’s available in the Country but, with its own limitation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Achievements of AI field service 1991-2002) 32882 34252 102756 2001 48259 27005 115085 2003 208537 225841 606935 Total 27885 29047 87140 2000 23239 24207 72620 1999 21420 22315 53550 1998 20085 20752 50213 1997 18750 19532 46876 1996 17416 18141 43539 1995 12645 16280 42460 1994 13780 16410 40603 1993 9933 11976 33531 1992 10502 12929 33647 1991 Calves born No. of pregnancy No. of insemination Year
  8. 8. Total semen Produced & distributed (1997-2002)
  9. 9. Semen & LN production & distribution 1991-2003 ) 22835 33112 154197 350492 2002 28022 43230 200895 250964 2001 37490 53057 279245 534171 2003 380573 472792 1745881 2285310 Total 29167 39485 165452 174280 2000 23563 31389 139256 145239 1999 25194 40644 150187 133720 1998 12290 4987 155078 7568 1997 15635 13412 134817 134158 1996 34034 39078 96465 143096 1995 42054 46992 80884 165728 1994 37546 42429 73392 73176 1993 37271 43578 65982 53224 1992 35472 41399 50031 119494 1991 Distribution/l Production / l Distribution (doses) Production(doses) L.Nitrogen Semen Year
  10. 11. 1. Inefficiency attributable to semen & LN production & distribution (NAIC ) level <ul><li>Quality of the genetic material due to lack of proper recording </li></ul><ul><li>& verification system (progeny testing) in bull selection for semen production. </li></ul><ul><li>Variability of AI fee Clients are served differently, some clients get semen free of charge while others are charged for supplied semen to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of control and standardization of the regional technicians training programmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clear share of responsibilities & accountability in areas of field artificial breeding extension service at a national stake holder's level. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of communication Reporting & Feed back system with stake holders . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activities related to semen production + trainers and technicians training + field AI extension service + the growing demand in product and service quality in relation to the growing users number, area coverage and technicians number as well as type etc. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. 2. limitation attributable to regional and Woreda stake holders level :- <ul><li>Irregularity of input supplies: - Semen, liquid nitrogen, sheath, glove , etc </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Shortage Of Transportation facility :-The nature of AI Services needs mobility . </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of proper utilization & maintenance facility for motor bicycles. LN plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational set up : - Organizational structure at regional and Woreda level do not have carrier structure for the promotion of AI technicians leading them to change their discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>In adequate number of technician: - Some of AI technicians trained miss placed & moved due to different reason & not involved in the operation currently. </li></ul><ul><li>In appropriate utilization of AI technician: - </li></ul><ul><li>By its nature AI service is year round activity one of the prevailing field AI Service problem is: </li></ul><ul><li>assigning AI technician to different discipline & utilization of their motor bicycle for another purpose. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 3. Inefficiencies attributable to the technicians level <ul><li>Lack of technical skill / proficiency to perform AI. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat detection problems. </li></ul><ul><li>lack of strong extension service </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of monitoring, Evaluation Reporting system. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Major Constraints Extension Uncoordinated approach Training & Education incentive LN supply & maintenance Input supply Field equipment Genetic material Information system Monitoring & Evaluation Organizational Responsibility accountability Constraints
  14. 15. Implementation of Successful AI Service <ul><li>The following general principles need to be considered when planning successful AI service : </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility :- An area under crossbreeding scheme should be accessible to an AI service personnel, market for the product, good extension link etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity (Sustainability):- crossbreeding effort requires uninterrupted technical and administrative backing. The confidence on the technology grows gradually so close link between extension and pastoralist community have to there. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Effectiveness:- The efficiency of return rate, on time service and actualized productivity are the critical point of concern for acceptability of AI initiative in a given community. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effectiveness and Marketing :-The cost of service and the market availability adds inertia to the promotion of the AI technology. In the absence of market, there can not be a guarantee to sustainability of the initiatives. </li></ul>
  15. 16. A successful AI program <ul><li>The successes of an AI service depend very much on the management of the herd, which requires, high standards of nutrition, health care and recording. </li></ul><ul><li>An appropriate dairy extension service is required to supply knowledge to the farmers about dairy management (housing, nutrition, fodder production and conservation, handling and milking, disease prevention, breeding, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>An appropriate animal health service network is required because genetically improved animals tend to show an increased susceptibility to different diseases. Major infectious diseases should be controlled before the introduction of exotic susceptible breeds into the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning of a programmed breeding is another prerequisite before the start of AI programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the ultimate goal of the programme . This may differ greatly from region to region, depending on Agro-ecological situation, the role played by cattle in the economy and the ecology and limiting factors such as labor, land or feed. </li></ul><ul><li>An appropriate milk marketing system including milk collection, processing and distribution facilities. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Regional Semen utilization & evaluation in last 5 years 17.7 14.9 24.9 61.82 Semen uptake & increamenatl use % 160 267 115 60 No. of AI technicians 150 na na 53 No of AI centers 85.5 76 76 94 No of Woreda’s envolved % 12 16.5 7.9 39.4 Annual increament in insemination % SNNP Oromiya Amhara Tigray Detail
  17. 18. Availabe breeds (bull semen )at NAIC <ul><li>Exotic ; Holeisten Frisian ,Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Indignous: Borna,Fogera, Horo, Begayit, Sheko </li></ul><ul><li>Cross of Borna, Fogera, Begayit with HF & Jersey </li></ul>
  18. 19. Policies and practice for delivery of improved genetic materials and related service should be formulated in relation to: <ul><li>Local situation (animal population, productivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental condition & availability of resource for livestock production, feed, health care ,suitable breed. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of production system , market, breeding policy/guide lines </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive and organized administrative & infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Social ,Traditional & Economic situation of farmers / pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperatives and farmers organization to provide best structure : such as cost of AI and veterinary , feed service, & marketing of products </li></ul>
  19. 20. AI efficiency on station in terms of No of service per conception.
  20. 22. Tigray & Amhara semen uptake & Utilizatin
  21. 23. Oromiya & SNNP semen uptake & Utilization
  22. 24. Delivery of A.I breeding service & improved genetics requires <ul><li>Active participation of stake holders: </li></ul><ul><li>( NAIC research, Regions, cooperatives, NGO’s involved in dairy production. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation of extension workers, farmers , inseminators , </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic improvements depends on the accurate measurement of characters and utilization of the data for bull selection </li></ul><ul><li>Getting cows in calf requires good heat detection, good insemination technique & quality semen. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate infrastructure, logistics, good telephone and transport service, </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives system for efficiency of insemination & extra activity performed on the holly days </li></ul>
  23. 25. II. Organization of AI service <ul><li>1.Identificatin of Potential areas </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ,extension service, market & No. of animals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Determining the AI delivery approach </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Round . Static, Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>3. Supply of AI equipments, Training of AI technicians </li></ul><ul><li>4. Monitoring & Evaluation, reporting </li></ul>
  24. 26. Mobile service delivery system <ul><li>Daily run (round) System </li></ul><ul><li>Farm Visit system </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Call system </li></ul>
  25. 27. Con.. <ul><li>The common AI service used by all regions in Ethiopia is Daily Round system , </li></ul><ul><li>That mean AI technicians with motorcycles visiting AI crushes built along the main road in rural and pre-urban areas and known sites of the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>In urban areas, call system is widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>Stationed delivery system is carried out mainly at the government farms and few commercial dairy farms that have their own technicians </li></ul>
  26. 28. Con.. <ul><li>The system of artificial breeding service structurally followed within the country is a three-tier which can be distinguished by the major roles undertaken at each tier level by different stakeholders </li></ul>
  27. 29. 1 U`Ø ¾ÇMÒ Ÿwƒ ዝርያ የማሻሻል ¨X˜ ¾Y^ H>Ń (¾vKÉ[h­‹ pwwKAi Se}Òw`) ´M:1
  28. 30. 1. There is the major roles & duties At MOARD / NAIC semen production level <ul><li>Perform planning at National level considering each regions </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Bull Dams for nominated mating to produce young AI bulls </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Bull for semen production based on pedigree & individual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Production evaluation, processing, storage and distribution of quality semen and liquid nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Importation of semen of progeny tested bulls from abroad which is used especially for nominated mating on Bull Dams </li></ul><ul><li>Training of trainees of technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Training of AI technicians as per the requirements of Regions those need support </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluating field AI service in collaboration with Region </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of over all AI activities </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>2. Regional Bureau / Semen bank Sub-center </li></ul><ul><li>This is the second tier for extending the artificial breeding service in their respective area to the users and stakeholders involved in delivering the service with the following major roles and duties:- </li></ul><ul><li>Planning regionally (semen requirements by genotype, number of females served necessary AI inputs required, monitoring schedules…) </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving, storage and distribution of semen for field AI service and managing semen bank. </li></ul><ul><li>Production storage and distribution of liquid nitrogen for field AI service. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply, storage and distribution of AI equipment as per field demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving reports from Woreda for reproductive performance monitoring and reporting the overall result for national consumption to NAIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate and monitor local (woreda) activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Training of AI technicians with the objective to deliver technically perfect and biologically effective artificial breeding service. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluating field AI service at technicians and female cattle reproductive performance level. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting integrated extension service delivery and supervision of areas covered by artificial breeding service. </li></ul>
  30. 32. 3 Woreda Rural and Agriculture Development Office <ul><li>Planning locally at each technicians level. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning daily AI service delivery strategy as per the local condition and resource for mobility of the technician to give the Service. </li></ul><ul><li>Locating insemination service delivery points accessible to the user farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting means of transport for mobile technicians with the objective to deliver village step and farmers door-step AI service. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting regularly directly to region , Zones / Federal . </li></ul><ul><li>Supervising the local activities at each technicians level. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers training strong extension service. </li></ul>
  31. 33. 3.1. AI Technician:- <ul><li>Currently, there are three categories of AI technicians involved in field AI operation namely, state, private and NGO employed personnel’s with the following major roles and duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper AI service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed daily activity </li></ul><ul><li>Perform proper recording as per the standard format </li></ul><ul><li>Obey the standard service delivery rules and hygienic / sanitary conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate DA, Veterinarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept or reject cows presented for insemination and tell to the farmer what to do next time. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect insemination fee determined per cow / heifer considering repeat insemination during a service period of 60 – 90 days if the cow repeats </li></ul><ul><li>Perform PD and advise farmer what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect calving reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare summaries and reports. </li></ul>
  32. 34. 3.2. The DA‘s and Supervisors <ul><li>Create awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate interest </li></ul><ul><li>Convince individuals to use the service </li></ul><ul><li>Make closer contact with technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange of information & ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Train farmers in heat detection, health care, feeding & management </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss with farmers and technicians on reproductive performance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in planning, coordination & supervision </li></ul>
  33. 35. 3.3. The Farmer:- <ul><li>Keep healthy and productive animals </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve feeds for period of shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Feed the animals properly </li></ul><ul><li>Present cows/heifers seen in heat for insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Present cows for PD </li></ul><ul><li>Give calving reports </li></ul><ul><li>Rear calves properly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep close contact with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI technician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterinarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritionists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce quality products </li></ul><ul><li>Perform selection for improvement </li></ul>
  34. 40. III. Recording and Monitoring of AI service <ul><li>1.Utilization of recording </li></ul><ul><li>To monitor bulls at the AI station </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid Inbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>to monitor the work of AI technicians </li></ul><ul><li>It indicate the efficiency of both bulls & technicians </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain economic information </li></ul><ul><li>( such as productivity, expense income, out put etc ) </li></ul>
  35. 41. 3. Type of Report Summary Formats <ul><li>Region wise summary format </li></ul><ul><li>Technicians wise summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to this month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technicians NR% summary </li></ul><ul><li>Bull's NR% summary </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction record sheet </li></ul>
  36. 42. Details of <ul><li>Calves born </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semen dose obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Semen does wasted </li></ul><ul><li>Semen dose available </li></ul><ul><li>Fee collected </li></ul>
  37. 43. Con… <ul><li>From the recorded data on AI set & reports </li></ul><ul><li>Consumable balance at the end of the month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NR% of bulls and technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter service intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calf mortality, sex and disposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion and the like could be determined </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Technical formulas for measuring efficiency <ul><li>Service per conception = total insemination </li></ul><ul><li>cows conceived </li></ul><ul><li>Calving rate = total cows conceived & calvedx100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total insemination of cows </li></ul><ul><li>NRR = cows not returned for 2 nd inseminationx100 </li></ul><ul><li>total 1 st inseminated cows </li></ul><ul><li>Conception rate = No. of pregnant cowsx100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility rate = cows inseminated & became pregnant x100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total inseminated of cows </li></ul>
  39. 45. Future Prospective Remark Level of importance Difference Future genetic gain Present production level Economically important trait 4 100 180 80 Weaning wt. 3 100 day 380 480 Calving interval 2 7mth 30 37 Age at 1 st calving 1 100 / 1300 300/ 1500 200 Milk yield / lactation
  40. 46. Key action in breed improvement ( principles of genetics) <ul><li>Set breeding objective that benefit Producers / pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Select bulls/breeds that best fit the AEZ. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress & adjust breeding objective to achieves the planned targets </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the merits </li></ul>
  41. 47. Priority actions at national level <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Create awareness among policy-makers and farmers of the importance of AnGR, particularly of the need to pay special attention to indigenous breeds. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Conduct capacity building in human resources with emphasis on specialized areas like genetic characterization and development of breeding plans. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c ) Establish and strengthen a national institution to coordinate management of AnGR. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 48. In order to achieve breed improvement goals <ul><li>Strengthening nucleus farms of local breeds of Borena, Fogera, Begayit & Horro . </li></ul><ul><li>- A Study conducted by FAO fund on breeding program, genetic improvements & conservation of local breeds. The final draft is ready for stakeholders comment. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of Holleta bull dam farm for Holeiston breed & Jersey farm in Wolayita sodo.Adaberga </li></ul><ul><li>Establishments of commercial follow farms for better bull selection. </li></ul><ul><li>- 4 farms around Addis Abeba selected & agreement reached on recording and selection of better bulls. </li></ul>
  43. 52. Future plan <ul><li>The demand for improved breed is increasing it can not be satisfied by NAIC only. </li></ul><ul><li>NAIC will transfer to Proven bull semen production by capacity building, </li></ul><ul><li>The regions will be transformed to production of semen from selected local & exotic breeds Oromiya already started some steps for action </li></ul>
  44. 54. Proper & efficient AI service Supportive & organized administration Active participation of stake holders Recording & data management system Quality semen / Genetic material Heat detection, & good AI technique Incentives System Carrier str training Infrastructure Input supply & logistics Proper & efficient AI Delivery
  45. 55. Conclusion Accountability & Responsibility At Federal Regional, zone, Woreda, DC AIT, farmer Setting priority & give due attention By all stake holders Coordinated Approach of the region & stake holders
  46. 56. Thank you
  47. 59. u´ ዝ `Á ThhM ¾}KÁ¿ vKÉ`h­‹ T>“ › `w„ ›Å` › eŸM S”Ò / ^”‹ u.c..T.².T ŸM ¡MM/ µ” ”› <e TŸLƒ ¨ ወረዳ MTƒ ×u=Á/ › `w„›Å` 16. › EeŸM S”Ò › Ç=e Ï@’@+¡ T}]ÁM SÖkU ¾edƒ S[ ጣ“ ”¡w”u? - ¾}S[Ö< ¢`T­‹ “ ¾›eŸM S”Ò ”¡w”u? - › vK²` ðci “ÃaÏ” U`ƒ ¡U‹ƒ“ e`߃ - eMÖ“ ¾Se¡ ¡ƒƒM“ ÓUÑT › Ç=e Ï@’@+¡ T}]ÁM TeÑvƒ ¾ ዝ `Á ThhM“ TÇkM ›ÑMÓKAƒ Tc}vu` የ Ów›ƒ U`ƒ“ ¡U ች ƒ“ e`߃ ¾TÇkM ›ÑMÓKAƒ SeÖƒ ¡ƒƒM“ ÓUÑT ¾›?¡e}”i” ›ÑMÓKAƒ ¾ ወ }ƒ“ eÒ U`ƒ TdÅÓ ¾ አ `w„ ›Å ¾U`  T ነት ¾”e dƒ ²` õLÔƒ ጥያቄ
  48. 60. 7 Proposed AI delivery networking system under low and medium input animal production system .
  49. 61. Simplified proposed breeding scheme for composite breed development from Frisian and Arsi cattle. 500 selected Arsi cows Five Frisian bulls Participating animals 10,000 -upgraded heifers continue to produce the next generation using F1 bulls 128 F 1 Males 128 F 1 females culled 12 best bulls for nucleus 103 to sire participating herds 5% death (14) animals 500 (25%HF75%A) Females 500 (37.5HF, 62.5A) females All males culled 13 culled F1 bulls and AI F1 bulls and AI Best upgraded heifers will join the nucleus each generation 50%HF50%A
  50. 62. Participant districts for proposed ONBS and composite breed development in Oromia region .