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Pig value chain and African swine fever mitigation: A call to rally cross-program collaboration

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Presented by Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Vish Nene, Lucilla Steinaa, Edward Okoth Abworo, Emily Ouma, Anna Lacasta, Naftaly Githaka at the ILRI Institute Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, 17-19 September 2019

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Pig value chain and African swine fever mitigation: A call to rally cross-program collaboration

  1. 1. Pig value chain and African swine fever mitigation: a call to rally cross-program collaboration Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Vish Nene, Lucilla Steinaa, Edward Okoth Abworo, Emily Ouma, Anna Lacasta, Naftaly Githaka ILRI Institute Planning Meeting, Addis Ababa, 17-19 September 2019
  2. 2. ASF etiology and symptoms The culprit - lasts for months in jambons! African swine fever – threatening a ~$150 billion global industry
  3. 3. Rapid global spread of African swine fever (Africa, Asia, Europe) S1 2009
  4. 4. Rapid global spread of African swine fever (Africa, Asia, Europe) S1 2014
  5. 5. Rapid global spread of African swine fever (Africa, Asia, Europe) S1 2019
  6. 6. • African swine fever is present in about 26 countries in Africa. Multiple genotypes of the virus are present. • Large double-stranded DNA virus, related to pox viruses. • Wildlife reservoir in Africa: warthogs, bushpigs. Ornithodoros soft ticks can transmit ASFV. • Impact on individuals is high: eradication of whole herds. Many women pig smallholders. • Prevalence is under-estimated (sell quick, rather than report) ASF in Africa
  7. 7. The cross-program opportunities – pigs do fly! livelihoods host genomics tick host biosecurity gender markets vaccine dvpt feed ASFV genomics
  8. 8. Gender, pig diseases and husbandry Women play a key role in the application of biosecurity Pigs a direct source of household cash (“ATM of the poor”) Empowering women in urban/semi-urban areas
  9. 9. ASFV transmission and pig value chain A key driver of disease spread is the social network with actors of the trade node contributing the most (traders, transporters and butchers)
  10. 10. ASF genomics • genotyping the virus • understanding the genetic determinants of virulence level • phylogeographics: co-study of viral evolution and geographic spread • charting the specificity of our local, high-virulence genotypes IX and X
  11. 11. Neighbor-Joining tree depicting the p72 gene relationships and geographical distribution of the major ASFV genotypes p72 gene CAM/1/02 CAM/4/85 GHA/1/02 LIS/60 NIG/1/01 ANG/70 IC/2/96 BEN/1/97 SPEC/205 SPEC/209 Mkuzi/79 I MOZ/1/02 MOZ/1/05 LUS1/93 MOZ/2/02 MOZ/1/03 II RSA/5/95 SPEC/257 RSA/3/03 RSA/Warmbaths III MOZ/1979 MAL/1/02 MOZ/1960 Tengani/62 V MOZ/8/94 SPEC265 MOZ/1/94 VI RSA/3/04/ RSA/Warthog RSA/1/99/W IV RSA/2/96 RSA/2/03 RSA/3/96 RSA/1/04 XIX Lillie RSA/1/95 XX XIIIRSA/1/03 RSA/4/95 RSA/1/98 SPEC/154 VII XIVNYA/12 TAN/2/03 TAN/1/03 XVI XVTAN/1/01 XIIISUM/14/11 XIIMZI/1/92 XIKAB/6/2 MCH/1/89 MCH/3/89 BAN/1/91 DED/1/89 LIL/20/2 DOWA CHJ/1/89 KLI/2/88 PHW/1/88 TMB/1/89 VIII UGA/1/95 KEN/5/01 IX BUR/1/84 BUR/1/90 Kenya/50 X 100 79 74 57 91 0.005 Molecular Epidemiology
  12. 12. Neighbor-Joining tree depicting the p72 gene relationships and geographical distribution of the major ASFV genotypes CAM/1/02 CAM/4/85 GHA/1/02 LIS/60 NIG/1/01 ANG/70 IC/2/96 BEN/1/97 SPEC/205 SPEC/209 Mkuzi/79 I MOZ/1/02 MOZ/1/05 LUS1/93 MOZ/2/02 MOZ/1/03 II RSA/5/95 SPEC/257 RSA/3/03 RSA/Warmbaths III MOZ/1979 MAL/1/02 MOZ/1960 Tengani/62 V MOZ/8/94 SPEC265 MOZ/1/94 VI RSA/3/04/ RSA/Warthog RSA/1/99/W IV RSA/2/96 RSA/2/03 RSA/3/96 RSA/1/04 XIX Lillie RSA/1/95 XX XIIIRSA/1/03 RSA/4/95 RSA/1/98 SPEC/154 VII XIVNYA/12 TAN/2/03 TAN/1/03 XVI XVTAN/1/01 XIIISUM/14/11 XIIMZI/1/92 XIKAB/6/2 MCH/1/89 MCH/3/89 BAN/1/91 DED/1/89 LIL/20/2 DOWA CHJ/1/89 KLI/2/88 PHW/1/88 TMB/1/89 VIII UGA/1/95 KEN/5/01 IX BUR/1/84 BUR/1/90 Kenya/50 X 100 79 74 57 91 0.005 p72 gene Molecular Epidemiology
  13. 13. Neighbor-Joining tree depicting the p72 gene relationships and geographical distribution of the major ASFV genotypes CAM/1/02 CAM/4/85 GHA/1/02 LIS/60 NIG/1/01 ANG/70 IC/2/96 BEN/1/97 SPEC/205 SPEC/209 Mkuzi/79 I MOZ/1/02 MOZ/1/05 LUS1/93 MOZ/2/02 MOZ/1/03 II RSA/5/95 SPEC/257 RSA/3/03 RSA/Warmbaths III MOZ/1979 MAL/1/02 MOZ/1960 Tengani/62 V MOZ/8/94 SPEC265 MOZ/1/94 VI RSA/3/04/ RSA/Warthog RSA/1/99/W IV RSA/2/96 RSA/2/03 RSA/3/96 RSA/1/04 XIX Lillie RSA/1/95 XX XIIIRSA/1/03 RSA/4/95 RSA/1/98 SPEC/154 VII XIVNYA/12 TAN/2/03 TAN/1/03 XVI XVTAN/1/01 XIIISUM/14/11 XIIMZI/1/92 XIKAB/6/2 MCH/1/89 MCH/3/89 BAN/1/91 DED/1/89 LIL/20/2 DOWA CHJ/1/89 KLI/2/88 PHW/1/88 TMB/1/89 VIII UGA/1/95 KEN/5/01 IX BUR/1/84 BUR/1/90 Kenya/50 X 100 79 74 57 91 0.005 p72 gene Molecular Epidemiology
  14. 14. Neighbor-Joining tree depicting the p72 gene relationships and geographical distribution of the major ASFV genotypes CAM/1/02 CAM/4/85 GHA/1/02 LIS/60 NIG/1/01 ANG/70 IC/2/96 BEN/1/97 SPEC/205 SPEC/209 Mkuzi/79 I MOZ/1/02 MOZ/1/05 LUS1/93 MOZ/2/02 MOZ/1/03 II RSA/5/95 SPEC/257 RSA/3/03 RSA/Warmbaths III MOZ/1979 MAL/1/02 MOZ/1960 Tengani/62 V MOZ/8/94 SPEC265 MOZ/1/94 VI RSA/3/04/ RSA/Warthog RSA/1/99/W IV RSA/2/96 RSA/2/03 RSA/3/96 RSA/1/04 XIX Lillie RSA/1/95 XX XIIIRSA/1/03 RSA/4/95 RSA/1/98 SPEC/154 VII XIVNYA/12 TAN/2/03 TAN/1/03 XVI XVTAN/1/01 XIIISUM/14/11 XIIMZI/1/92 XIKAB/6/2 MCH/1/89 MCH/3/89 BAN/1/91 DED/1/89 LIL/20/2 DOWA CHJ/1/89 KLI/2/88 PHW/1/88 TMB/1/89 VIII UGA/1/95 KEN/5/01 IX BUR/1/84 BUR/1/90 Kenya/50 X 100 79 74 57 91 0.005 p72 gene Molecular Epidemiology
  15. 15. Neighbor-Joining tree depicting the p72 gene relationships and geographical distribution of the major ASFV genotypes CAM/1/02 CAM/4/85 GHA/1/02 LIS/60 NIG/1/01 ANG/70 IC/2/96 BEN/1/97 SPEC/205 SPEC/209 Mkuzi/79 I MOZ/1/02 MOZ/1/05 LUS1/93 MOZ/2/02 MOZ/1/03 II RSA/5/95 SPEC/257 RSA/3/03 RSA/Warmbaths III MOZ/1979 MAL/1/02 MOZ/1960 Tengani/62 V MOZ/8/94 SPEC265 MOZ/1/94 VI RSA/3/04/ RSA/Warthog RSA/1/99/W IV RSA/2/96 RSA/2/03 RSA/3/96 RSA/1/04 XIX Lillie RSA/1/95 XX XIIIRSA/1/03 RSA/4/95 RSA/1/98 SPEC/154 VII XIVNYA/12 TAN/2/03 TAN/1/03 XVI XVTAN/1/01 XIIISUM/14/11 XIIMZI/1/92 XIKAB/6/2 MCH/1/89 MCH/3/89 BAN/1/91 DED/1/89 LIL/20/2 DOWA CHJ/1/89 KLI/2/88 PHW/1/88 TMB/1/89 VIII UGA/1/95 KEN/5/01 IX BUR/1/84 BUR/1/90 Kenya/50 X 100 79 74 57 91 0.005 p72 gene Molecular Epidemiology
  16. 16. Vaccine development • identify and try subunit viral proteins eliciting immune reaction • get an attenuated, safe virus as a vaccine candidate • using modern genome editing (CRISR-Cas9 + synthetic biology) • more diversity means different types of vaccine to be developed for Africa
  17. 17. Host genomics • genes involved in the response of the pig to ASFV? • why do some pigs seem asymptomatic? • how come warthogs are unaffected by ASFV (natural reservoir)? • can warthog genomics help us help the pigs?
  18. 18. The tick host • what is the life cycle of ASFV in the tick? • can we disrupt it? • Kapiti a great sampling field! • establishing new tick lines (Naftaly) soft tick Ornithodoros moubata
  19. 19. They helped get this pitch – or would get involved in such a project, isn’t it? Too many to name them all! • Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner • Vish Nene • Edward Okoth • Sam Oyola • Lucilla Steinaa • Emily Ouma • Naftaly Githaka • Raphael Mrode • Christian Tiambo • Roger Pelle ILRI scientists in the picture • Hussein Abkallo • Anna Lacasta • Elise Schieck • Nicholas Svitek • Sonal Henson • Nicoline de Haan • Karl Rich • etc… • YOU!!!
  20. 20. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations which globally support its work through their contributions to the CGIAR Trust Fund

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