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Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa

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Presentation prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert and D. Sheikh for the AFDB meeting in Tunis, April 18, 2005.

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Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa

  1. 1. Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa Prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert & D. Sheikh International Livestock Research Institute In collaboration with the International Water Management Institute For the AfDB meeting in Tunis 18 April 2005, AfDB April 2005
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Development context for agricultural water and livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial analyses of SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Investment options for integrating water, crop and livestock development </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  3. 3. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT SSA History of livestock in and around irrigation <ul><li>Plans to accommodate animals in irrigation planning rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Gezira: supports 1.7 million animals that make up 30% of income, but no policy or planning for first 60 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation often produces much crop residue, but potential for animal production often ignored in irrigation planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Without watering facilities, drinking animals degrade water and adjacent land and jeopardize human health. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural water development often marginalizes herders. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning for water borne & zoonotic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of assessment of market potential for livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning for integration of manure production and animal power into irrigated crop production. </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  4. 4. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Demand water for animal products to 2005 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA is increasing rapidly! <ul><li>Similar forces drive demand for irrigation and animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting this demand can help poor people generate income </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  5. 5. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock densities in SSA (TLU/km 2 ) <ul><li>Agricultural intensification attracts livestock production </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation is associated with highest livestock densities </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  6. 6. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock, annual cropping & sedimentation <ul><li>Sources of soil loss and sedimentation in Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Annual croplands contribute greatly to siltation of water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improved INRM including livestock is needed </li></ul>Source: Hurni, 1989 AfDB April 2005
  7. 7. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock, annual cropping & sedimentation <ul><li>Areas in Africa with greatest risk to agricultural water caused by poor livestock keeping practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the most important livestock countries: Sudan, Ethiopia and Nigeria. </li></ul><ul><li>Risky areas usually associated with mixed crop-livestock production rather than grazing. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual croplands contribute greatly to siltation of water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improved INRM with livestock needed </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  8. 8. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Poorly planned expansion of irrigation and rainfed farming sparks conflict with herders <ul><li>“ Conflict … rooted in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Million … farmers & herders. </li></ul><ul><li>Graziers migrate from arid North to South after August rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional tribal laws settled conflict & people co-existed. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent drought in 1980s forced herders into arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for resources turned violent. </li></ul>4 Oct 2004 An SSA-wide problem!!! AfDB April 2005
  9. 9. DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Reasons to integrate investments in agricultural water livestock livestock <ul><li>Help achieve MDGs (2015): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cut in poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cut in hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safeguard assets: livestock are key assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve child nutrition for physical & mental growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable poor farmers to access expanding urban markets for selling high value animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect water resources through better husbandry. </li></ul><ul><li>Support animal power: an alternative to petroleum . </li></ul><ul><li>Increase sustainability of irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce potential for conflict. </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  10. 10. Spatial Analyses of SSA Where to invest in water for livestock? 15 Water-Livestock Development Domains Ag. Production systems Available Discret. water Market access Plus Urban livestock Human pop. density
  11. 11. Spatial Analyses of SSA Water-livestock investment domains <ul><li>WLDs highly diversified and specific interventions for each are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover 16.3 million km 2 – 54% of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Contain 625 million people – 78% of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>139 million poor livestock keepers </li></ul><ul><li>249 million Livestock TLU </li></ul><ul><li>Feed production requires about 112 million m 3 of water for maintenance only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About double this for profitable animal production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated evaporation uses up to six times more H 2 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for animal production will also increase demand for agricultural water needed for irrigation. </li></ul></ul>AfDB April 2005
  12. 12. Selected investment options Improve irrigation system design <ul><li>Livestock are closely associated with irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Include pastoralists in irrigation planning processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, marginalized and loss of access to water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide grazing & watering corridors in irrigation systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offset losses from reduced dry season grazing through increased access to residues from irrigated crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use crop residues in chain linking herders to markets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider market potential for livestock and animal products as one option for optimizing irrigation systems outputs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of dual purpose food-feed crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near markets, use of water for irrigated feed production may be profitable. </li></ul></ul>AfDB April 2005
  13. 13. Selected investment options Provide drinking water in irrigation systems <ul><li>Less than 5 % of animal water used but it is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Provide continuous supply to increase animal and milk production: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces heat stress on animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency of feed conversion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevents damage to canals. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents water contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps control helminthic and </li></ul><ul><li>other water-borne diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for livestock that </li></ul><ul><li>farmers and labourers acquire </li></ul><ul><li>as they step out of poverty: </li></ul><ul><li>(Animals need a place to live) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Selected investment options Effective feed sourcing strategies <ul><li>Increase water productivity by feeding crop residues to animals because no extra water is used. </li></ul><ul><li>But, protect soil by returning some residue and manure. </li></ul><ul><li>Added value of animal production with little use of water increases profitability and provides farm power. </li></ul>Teff for feed Teff for Feed
  15. 15. Selected investment options Reduce negative impact of livestock on water resources <ul><li>Keep animals away from irrigation canals and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing drinking troughs & protect riparian vegetation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand mandate of water users associations to include common property grazing land in catchments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduce livestock keeping practices that help protect upslope soil and reduce sedimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero grazing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing per animal productivity through better health, nutrition breeding and husbandry to enable de-stocking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop markets to farmers need to build up herd sizes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage alternative forms of wealth savings. </li></ul></ul>AfDB April 2005
  16. 16. Summary <ul><li>Opportunities lost because of lack of integration of livestock into water planning and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating investments ag. water & livestock may help reduce poverty and overcome vulnerability of the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-sectoral & multi-regional approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced mix of supply & demand management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective use of existing technology and knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective inclusion of communities and all stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender and ethnic equity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diverse water development domains require specific solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Significant increases in water productivity in SSA possible. </li></ul>AfDB April 2005
  17. 17. Thank you

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