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Investment options for integrating water management and crop and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa Prepared by D....
Outline <ul><li>Bad press, neglect, and myths or half truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons to invest in water for livestock. <...
Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>BBC </li></ul><ul><li>(16 August 2004)...
Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>BBC </li></ul><ul><li>(16 August 2004)...
Neglect <ul><li>Few irrigation systems plan for livestock, but agricultural water attracts animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Exam...
Is overgrazing the primary cause of land degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa? <ul><li>Myth or reality? </li></ul>At least pa...
Reasons to invest in water for livestock  <ul><li>Help achieve MDGs (2015):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cut in poverty </li...
Reasons to invest in water for livestock Trends to 2025   Meat & Milk consumption in SSA expected to increase <ul><li>The ...
Reasons to invest in water for livestock Trends to 2025 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA expected to increase Need for polic...
Reasons to invest in water for livestock <ul><li>We also need multi-sectoral policy and technology grounded in science to ...
Principles investing for livestock sector growth <ul><li>Promote multiple benefits ( D airy, meat, wealth, power, risk avo...
Where to invest in water for livestock?   15 Water-Livestock  Development Domains Ag. Production systems Available Discret...
Water development domains: Example 1 <ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><li>High pop. density </li></ul><ul><li>Go...
Example Water Development Domain (Small area, but many users compete for water) Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Goo...
Example Water Development Domain Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low Ethiopi...
Water harvesting and livestock: Belatu’s story (Preliminary results  -  Sasakawa Global 2000 & ILRI collaboration) 1997: S...
<ul><li>NOW: </li></ul><ul><li>2 underground tanks @ 65 m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>$1500; year round; multiple sources. </li></...
<ul><li>Main pathways out of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Securing assets, production, income </li></ul></ul></ul>WD...
WDD:  Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 <ul><li>Priority  water  investment options: </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Complementary  non- water  investment options: </li></ul><ul><li>Example technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conse...
WDD:  Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 <ul><li>Example policy options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>En...
<ul><li>Example impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage in SSA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced use of oxen could re...
<ul><li>Example impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased water productivity by feeding crop residue to animals because no extr...
WDD:  Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0   Kenya Ethiopia Nigeria Smallholder dairy production i...
Some lessons learned <ul><li>Opportunities lost because of lack of integration of livestock into water planning and develo...
Final thought:  Introduction of rainfed and irrigated cropping must anticipate and mitigate conflict with pastoralists – a...
Thank  you ATPS - 2004
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Investment options for integrating water management and crop and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa

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A presentation prepared by Peden, D.; Freeman, A.; Astatke, A.; Notenbaert, A. and Sheikh, D. for the CA Workshop on Community-based irrigation, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, March 14-16, 2005.

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Investment options for integrating water management and crop and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa

  1. 1. Investment options for integrating water management and crop and livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa Prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert & D. Sheikh International Livestock Research Institute In collaboration with the International Water Management Institute & the Challenge Program on Water and Food For the CA Workshop on Community-based irrigation 14-16 March 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia CA-March 2005
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Bad press, neglect, and myths or half truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons to invest in water for livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for investing in water for livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Where to invest in water for livestock or livestock-water development domains . </li></ul><ul><li>Example investment options. </li></ul><ul><li>Some technology-policy lessons learned. </li></ul>CA-March 2005
  3. 3. Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>BBC </li></ul><ul><li>(16 August 2004) </li></ul>“… growth in demand for meat and dairy products is unsustainable” A widely held view: Stockholm World Water Week: ATPS - 2004
  4. 4. Investing in water to support livestock sector growth in sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>BBC </li></ul><ul><li>(16 August 2004) </li></ul>A widely held view: Stockholm World Water Week: but, is this true? CA-March 2005
  5. 5. Neglect <ul><li>Few irrigation systems plan for livestock, but agricultural water attracts animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gezira’s 800 thousand hectares now supports 1,700,000 million animals, but no policy or planning for first 60 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation often produces much crop residue, but potential for animal production often ignored in irrigation planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without watering facilities, animals drink from primary water sources degrading water and adjacent land and jeopardizing human health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural water development often marginalizes pastoralists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning rare for coping with water borne and zoonotic animal diseases. </li></ul></ul>CA-March 2005
  6. 6. Is overgrazing the primary cause of land degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa? <ul><li>Myth or reality? </li></ul>At least partly a myth! Source: Hurni, 1989 ATPS - 2004
  7. 7. Reasons to invest in water for livestock <ul><li>Help achieve MDGs (2015): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cut in poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% cut in hunger. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safeguard assets: livestock are key assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable child nutrition for physical & mental growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable access to expanding urban markets for high value animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect water resources through better husbandry. </li></ul><ul><li>Support animal power: an alternative to petroleum. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase water productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce potential for conflict. </li></ul>ATPS - 2004
  8. 8. Reasons to invest in water for livestock Trends to 2025 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA expected to increase <ul><li>The “ Hungry ” world will still eat less meat! </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul>ATPS - 2004
  9. 9. Reasons to invest in water for livestock Trends to 2025 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA expected to increase Need for policy and institutions to enable poor smallholder farmers to engage in markets. ATPS - 2004
  10. 10. Reasons to invest in water for livestock <ul><li>We also need multi-sectoral policy and technology grounded in science to ensure that livestock production contributes to rather than prevents sustainable use of water resources. </li></ul>ATPS - 2004
  11. 11. Principles investing for livestock sector growth <ul><li>Promote multiple benefits ( D airy, meat, wealth, power, risk avoidance, cultural values plus non-livestock outputs). </li></ul><ul><li>Consider spatial variability (Pastoral, mixed crop-livestock, & urban, rainfed & irrigated production systems). </li></ul><ul><li>Promote better animal management to reduce degradation of water and land. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase livestock water productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated assessment of demographic and market trends, production systems and available water to determine where best bet interventions should be made. </li></ul>CA-March 2005
  12. 12. Where to invest in water for livestock? 15 Water-Livestock Development Domains Ag. Production systems Available Discret. water Market access Human pop. density Plus Urban livestock CA-March 2005
  13. 13. Water development domains: Example 1 <ul><li>Mixed crop-livestock </li></ul><ul><li>High pop. density </li></ul><ul><li>Good market access </li></ul><ul><li>Low availability of Discretionary water </li></ul>CA-March 2005
  14. 14. Example Water Development Domain (Small area, but many users compete for water) Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low Rwanda Kenya Uganda Burundi Ethiopia Nigeria CA-March 2005
  15. 15. Example Water Development Domain Mixed crop-livestock High pop. Density Good market access Discretionary water low Ethiopia CA-March 2005
  16. 16. Water harvesting and livestock: Belatu’s story (Preliminary results - Sasakawa Global 2000 & ILRI collaboration) 1997: Subsistence & family income less than $50/year CA-March 2005
  17. 17. <ul><li>NOW: </li></ul><ul><li>2 underground tanks @ 65 m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>$1500; year round; multiple sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops: 2 or 3 per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic, onion, tomatoes . </li></ul><ul><li>Milk: From <1 to 20 l/day </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 6 $/day with value added. </li></ul><ul><li>SUCCESS FACTORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified command area agric. </li></ul><ul><li>Market access. </li></ul><ul><li>More effective use of labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Value added production (milk). </li></ul><ul><li>WH increased rainfed dairy LWP. </li></ul><ul><li>Household was educated. </li></ul>Water harvesting and livestock: Belatu’s story (Preliminary results - Sasakawa Global 2000 & ILRI collaboration) 1997: Subsistence & family income less than $50/year CA-March 2005
  18. 18. <ul><li>Main pathways out of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Securing assets, production, income </li></ul></ul></ul>WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 <ul><li>Some key Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme poverty & hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to quality water & feed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought & vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Siltation of reservoirs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient use of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water borne diseases </li></ul></ul></ul>CA-March 2005
  19. 19. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 <ul><li>Priority water investment options: </li></ul><ul><li>Example technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including drinking troughs in existing and planned dams, ponds & diversions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design water harvesting with feed production options by using catchment production and food-feed crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piped water for smallholder dairying. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for Community-based IWRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water associations could partner with livestock and other sectors in planning water infra-structure development. </li></ul></ul>CA-March 2005
  20. 20. <ul><li>Complementary non- water investment options: </li></ul><ul><li>Example technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero-grazing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of helminthes (fasciola) & snails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for Community-based NRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing mechanisms (eg., Dairy coops) </li></ul></ul>WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 CA-March 2005
  21. 21. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 <ul><li>Example policy options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage collective and joint management of water and grazing resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development institutions accept legitimacy of the “livestock production option”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water pricing & demand management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning for animal keeping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market development </li></ul></ul>CA-March 2005
  22. 22. <ul><li>Example impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage in SSA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced use of oxen could reduce water used for feed by 20 billion m 3 /yr assuming 50% comes from residue. </li></ul></ul>WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 CA-March 2005
  23. 23. <ul><li>Example impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased water productivity by feeding crop residue to animals because no extra water is used. </li></ul>WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 Teff for feed <ul><li>But, protect soil by returning some residue and manure. </li></ul>Teff for Feed CA-March 2005
  24. 24. WDD: Crop-livestock, High pop. density, Good market, Little H 2 0 Kenya Ethiopia Nigeria Smallholder dairy production in Kenya increased by 60% per animal by continuous provision of drinking water CA-March 2005 <ul><li>Example impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased water productivity triggered by provision of drinking water for animals. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Some lessons learned <ul><li>Opportunities lost because of lack of integration of livestock into water planning and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in water for livestock may be effective in reducing poverty and overcome vulnerability of the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-sectoral & multi-regional approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced mix of supply & demand management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective use of existing technology and knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective inclusion of communities and all stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender and ethnic equity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This does not mean simply increasing meat consumption to the level of “western diets”. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant increases in water productivity possible. </li></ul>CA-March 2005
  26. 26. Final thought: Introduction of rainfed and irrigated cropping must anticipate and mitigate conflict with pastoralists – an African-wide problem <ul><li>“ Conflict … rooted in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Million African farmers & Arab herders. </li></ul><ul><li>Graziers migrate from arid North to South after August rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional tribal laws settled conflict & people co-existed. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent drought in 1980s forced Arabs into arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for turf turned violent. </li></ul>4 Oct 2004 What policies and technologies are needed? CA-March 2005
  27. 27. Thank you ATPS - 2004

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