Investigating the impacts of land use, climate and biodiversity changes on human health and wellbeing

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Poster by Bernard Bett, Evans Mwangi, Salome Bukachi, Salome Wanyoike, Rosemary Sang and Ian Njeru presented at the 2013 ILRI Annual Program Meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-17 May 2013.

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Investigating the impacts of land use, climate and biodiversity changes on human health and wellbeing

  1. 1. Disease-ecosystemsdynamics• Uses an integrated analysis ofecosystems and disease,guided by spatio-temporalprocess-based models, toidentify ecological drivers ofRVF.• Types of ecosystem servicesavailable in the study sites arebeing mapped and quantifiedusing Integrated Valuation ofEnvironmental Services(InVEST) modelling tool.• RVF transmission model thatintegrates vector, host andsocio-economics modules isalso being developed. Thisinvolves adapting a model thathas been developed by otherprojects (Figure 4) to analyzeclimate change effects.Figure 4. Outputs from an RVFtransmission model showing predictedincidence in vectors and vertebratehosts for the period Jan 1990 toDecember 2009• Biological sampling of livestock,people and vectors will beimplemented to generate datafor model parameterizationInvestigating the impacts of land use, climate and biodiversity changes on humanhealth and wellbeingBernard Bett1, Evans Mwangi2, Salome Bukachi3, Salome Wanyoike4, Rosemary Sang5, Ian Njeru61. International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709-00100, Nairobi; b.bett@cgiar.org2. School of Biological Studies, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi; emmwangi@uonbi.ac.ke3. Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi; sallybukachi@yahoo.com4. Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture; P. O. Box 319-00605, Uthiru, Nairobi; swwanyoike@yahoo.com5. Kenya Medical Research Institute, Ministry of Health; Rosemary.Sang@usamru-k.org6. Division of Disease Surveillance and Response, Ministry of Health; iannjeru75@yahoo.comIntroduction• Intact ecosystems maintain stable biodiversity and processes that support theproduction of a range of ecosystem services• Agricultural intensification and other land use changes e.g. urbanization causehabitat fragmentation, pollution and alteration of biodiversity leading to areduction in regulatory and supporting services at the expense of provisioningservices (Millennium Assessment study [MA] 2005). Climate change acceleratesthese changes by altering vegetation communities, biome boundaries andanimal habitats (IPCC 2007).• As a result, the incidence and impacts of infectious diseases such as Rift Valleyfever, Chikungunya fever, malaria, etc. would increase if sufficient preventativemeasures are not implemented.• This study uses multidisciplinary approaches to identify the impacts of irrigationin the dry lands (as an intervention to increase food production) on humanhealth and wellbeing based on the framework given in Figure 1. Rift Valley fever(RVF) is being used as a case study disease and sites that have been identifiedfor the study are Ijara and Tana River Districts in Kenya (Figure 2)• Expected outcome: Greater awareness established on linkagesbetween environmental change and public health. In addition,findings generated will be used to develop policies and incentives onsustainable land useLocal system contexts andinteractions• Utilizes participatory and socialscience methods to assess localpeoples’ interactions with theirecosystems and landscape andtheir understanding on thelinkages between ecosystemchange and the disease• Builds on the work that has beendone using participatoryepidemiological methods (maps[e.g. Figure 3], timelines, seasonalcalendars etc.) to illustrate howlivelihood practices influenceexposure to diseaseFigure 3. A participatory map illustratinggrazing patterns in a Somali community innortheastern KenyaIndustrialization&other humanactivities thatgenerate gaseswith greenhouseeffectFigure 1. Conceptual framework illustrating key linkages betweenland use and climate change, biodiversity and human health andwellbeingTrans-disciplinary research themesSocial, economic andenvironmental values• Determines how people valuehealth with respect to RVF,perceive economic values andtrade-offs in ecosystemservices, experience costs andbenefits from RVF control, andadapt to some of theimplications of the diseasecontrol measures.• Contingent valuation methodswill be used to estimateeconomic values of ecosystemservices and their trade-offs.• The theme will also determinehow values attached to healthwith respect to RVF influencethe daily choices that peoplemake to avoid exposure. Theseobjectives will combinehousehold surveys andassessment of public records toaddress most of the objectivesdescribed.Political economy ofknowledge and policyThis theme addresses key policyquestions including:• How is RVF understood,labelled, differentiated (ornot), prioritized or neglectedas part of a cluster ofdiseases/health issues?• Which drivers of the diseaseare seen as being significant?• What kinds of ecosystemchange are seen assignificant, and which areignored?• What kinds of spill-over andtransmission dynamics areidentified as important?• Which groups of people areidentified as vulnerable andwhy?• What poverty impacts areidentified?ReferencesIPCC. 2007. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth AssessmentReport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M.L. Parry,O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 976 pp.Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Washington, DC, Island Press.Figure 2. Map of the study areaTwo sites will be used for the study:- Ijara District, Kenya is an area wherepastoralism is the main livelihoodactivity. It represents a site that hasslow or minimal land use changes- Tana River County, has two of the mainirrigation schemes in Kenya (Hola andBura). It represents a site withsubstantial land use changes

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