Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable    watershed management in Astbi and Mieso districts,                ...
Who is responsible??
Background – Livestock in Ethiopia Large livestock population - cattle - 50 million, sheep – 25 million; Goats – 22   mil...
Attributes of Astbi, Tigray study site Land area 1,223 Km2; Human population  110,578 Altitude - 918-3069 (2212) masl 75...
Attributes of Mieso, Oromia study site Land area of 2,574 Km2 and human population of 115,568. Altitude - 900 to 1600 masl...
Watershed A watershed consists of a steep land as runoff generating  and valley bottoms as run-on zones in a continuum fa...
Implemented interventions
Intervention approaches Potentials, limitations and interventions (including GIS) of  market oriented livestock commoditi...
Atsbi
Production Systems - crop-livestock system,overgrazing, feed shortage and land degradation
Major livestock commodities - sheep and apiculture
Discussion with experts and the communityfollowed by training and exchange visit programs
FTCs as knowledge centres
Woreda Knowledge Centres – non-electronic and electronic materials
Targeting, selection of suitable forage species,community mobilization and action
Rehabilitated hillside areas
Phalaris aquatica
Area enclosures
Changes in biomass and forage composition -backyard
Farmland/backyard forage development
Hillside rehabilitation
Gully rehabilitation
Changes in gully stabilization
System intensification -– cut andcarry system in bottomlands
Cut and carry system
Cut and carry system - bottomlands
Changes in biomass and forage composition:irrigated sites
Farmland feed resources development
Changes in forage groundcover – slowerrunoff, higher water infiltration
Changes –in groundwater recharge and streamsand spring development
Enriched Biodiversity – linked toapiculture development
Water harvesting
Improved groundwater recharge, shallow wells,water harvesting and Irrigated horticultural cropsdevelopment
Watershed treatment and apiculture developmentBee forages
Apiculture in area closure
Apiculture development
Queen rearing and training centre
Apiculture products marketing – linkagewith processors
Honey shop in Mekelle - branding
Sheep production and marketing
Diversification- Marketing feed for cashincome
Monitoring, evaluation and learning for scaling out lessonsthrough field visits and exchange programs
Atsbi –– forage development 2005 - 2009Forage intervention type       Demo area – ha or      Scaled out coverage – ha,    ...
Changes in biomass yield in thewatershed continuum
Changes in forage utilization: Sheep fatteningand innovation uptake
Improved forage uptake following demonstration
Apiculture and vegetables developmentApiculture Currently, there are 19,272 hives and colonies - worth of about USD 1.5 -...
Mieso, Oromia
Pastoral and agro-pastoral system
Crop-livestock system
Major livestock species - cattle, goats, camels
Feed resources in the crop-livestock system
Participatory assessment of feed resources inpastoral area
Intrusion of undesirable invasive species                       Prosopis juliflora      Euphorbia spp.           Acacia nu...
Major feeding systems
Re-habilitating degraded rangelands
Fodder enclosure management and strategic use The size of private enclosures varies from 0.5 to 1.5 ha. Only 47% practic...
Crop residue improvement
Sorghum conservation, chopping and urea treatment forimproved animal production
Production of food/feed crops Sorghum, maize, haricot bean and sweet potato  production cover 73%, 22%, 3% and 1%, respec...
Sweet sorghum Cultivated in crop livestock and agro-pastoralist areas on 80%  of the arable land (about 13,000 ha). Hard...
Inter-cropping sweet sorghum with pigeonpea and Rhodes grass
Sweet potato Is a food/feed crop often inter-cropped with cereals and is also   used for income generation. Five types c...
Sweet potato
Forage integration into cropping systems
Participatory selection of Napier grass varieties
Improved forages – Napier grass
Fodder development
Fodder development
Fodder development- forage integration intocropping system
Construction of ponds and waterharvesting structures with feed resource
Diarrhea, pneumonia and tick infestation are majorhealth problems
Use of locally available concentrate feedsand other farmer innovations Drenching fenugreek powder mixed with water to  cl...
Concentrate feeds – oil cakes
Urea-molasses blocks
Use of fresh human urine and mineral soils Fresh urine is poured on crop  residues and fed to increase  feed intake, impr...
Use of manure and medicinal plants Producers indicated manure application improves water  retention and utilization, incr...
Some medicinal plants
Input supply and services
Input supply and services
Concentrate feed supply system
Rural shops – Private vet drugs and forageseed – agri-business
Improved Production
Cattle fattening (@ 20,000-35,000 Birr/head –about 2,000 USD)
Improved animal production
Small Ruminants
Regular and strategic destocking In C-L system cattle fattened during abundant period (July - Nov)   and sale between Sep...
Market-oriented production system andmarketing groups
Market promotion and linkage – Livestock fair
Marketing and linkages
Market promotion, recognition andlinkages – Awards during livestock fair
Beef and goat meat for domestic market
Farmer innovation in Mieso   Fodder enclosure management and strategic use   Regular and strategic destocking (matching ...
Farmer innovation in Mieso Improving the quality of feed resources through boiling, roasting,   soaking, and making flour...
Key issues for integrated approachto commodity development Knowledge Management Capacity Development Commodity NOT Tech...
Conclusions and Outlook Key factors to stimulate local innovation - economic  incentives, erratic rainfall and drought, f...
Some interesting landscapes
Thank You!!www.ipms-ethiopia.org
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS exp...
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Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS experience

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Presented by Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin, Dirk Hoekstra, Gebremedhin W/wahid, Zewdu Ayele and Kahsay Berhe at the “Training on Participatory Integrated Watershed Management Planning and Implementation”, workshop, Bahir Dar, 22-27 November 2012


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Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso Districts, Ethiopia: IPMS experience

  1. 1. Market-oriented livestock production and sustainable watershed management in Astbi and Mieso districts, Ethiopia: IPMS experience Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin, Dirk Hoekstra, Gebremedhin W/wahid, Zewdu Ayele, Kahsay Berhe “Training on Participatory Integrated Watershed Management Planning and Implementation”, Bahir Dar, 22-27 November 2012Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) Project, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding Author: a.tegegne@cgiar.org
  2. 2. Who is responsible??
  3. 3. Background – Livestock in Ethiopia Large livestock population - cattle - 50 million, sheep – 25 million; Goats – 22 million; in crop-livestock mixed and pastoral/agro-pastoral production systems. Semi arid and arid lowlands cover 78 million ha (61-65 % of the land), home for 12% of human and 26% of livestock population; (agro)-pastoral system. About 80-85% of feed from natural pasture and quantity and quality varies. Feed shortage is a key constraint and producers have developed innovations in feed resources development and feeding systems. With increased population pressure and over use of natural resources watersheds have reduced productivity often unable to feed the growing population. Our objective is to share innovative practices in market-oriented livestock production within a watershed context in the dry highlands of Atsbi in Tigray and the semi-arid areas of Mieso in Oromia.
  4. 4. Attributes of Astbi, Tigray study site Land area 1,223 Km2; Human population 110,578 Altitude - 918-3069 (2212) masl 75% >2600 m Rainfall 365-678 (537) mm and temperature, 13-25 (17.8) oC Agro-ecologically classified as- dry highland Major crops grown are: barley, wheat, teff, faba beans, lentils, field peas, chickpeas, irrigated fruits and vegetables Livestock resources - Cattle (52,264); Sheep (72,471); Goats (10,427); Camels (1,529); Beehives (6,729)
  5. 5. Attributes of Mieso, Oromia study site Land area of 2,574 Km2 and human population of 115,568. Altitude - 900 to 1600 masl ; temperature varies between 240C and 280C; annual rainfall -790 mm Agro-ecologically - classified as semi-arid lowland and only 12% land suitable for crop production Major crops - sorghum, maize, teff, sesame, haricot beans and sweet potatoes Cattle (92,411), goats (41,869), camels (11,445) and sheep (7,325) Pastoralists - 80%, agro-pastoralists- 15%, crop- livestock production – 5%. About 73,658 ha (38%) of total land covered by bushes, forests and grazing land, and are the major feed resources (IPMS, 2006).
  6. 6. Watershed A watershed consists of a steep land as runoff generating and valley bottoms as run-on zones in a continuum fashion. With increased population pressure, over use of natural resources results in low watershed productivity often unable to feed the growing population. In this regard, IPMS has been working on watershed based market-oriented crop and livestock commodities development to improve productivity and income of smallholder farmers.
  7. 7. Implemented interventions
  8. 8. Intervention approaches Potentials, limitations and interventions (including GIS) of market oriented livestock commodities were identified along the value chain framework (VCF)  Natural pasture improvement  Crop residue improvement  Introduction of improved forage species in conserved watersheds  Introduction of cut and carry system of livestock feeding Interventions implemented along the commodity value chain – Beef and goats in Mieso and sheep and apiculture in Atsbi
  9. 9. Atsbi
  10. 10. Production Systems - crop-livestock system,overgrazing, feed shortage and land degradation
  11. 11. Major livestock commodities - sheep and apiculture
  12. 12. Discussion with experts and the communityfollowed by training and exchange visit programs
  13. 13. FTCs as knowledge centres
  14. 14. Woreda Knowledge Centres – non-electronic and electronic materials
  15. 15. Targeting, selection of suitable forage species,community mobilization and action
  16. 16. Rehabilitated hillside areas
  17. 17. Phalaris aquatica
  18. 18. Area enclosures
  19. 19. Changes in biomass and forage composition -backyard
  20. 20. Farmland/backyard forage development
  21. 21. Hillside rehabilitation
  22. 22. Gully rehabilitation
  23. 23. Changes in gully stabilization
  24. 24. System intensification -– cut andcarry system in bottomlands
  25. 25. Cut and carry system
  26. 26. Cut and carry system - bottomlands
  27. 27. Changes in biomass and forage composition:irrigated sites
  28. 28. Farmland feed resources development
  29. 29. Changes in forage groundcover – slowerrunoff, higher water infiltration
  30. 30. Changes –in groundwater recharge and streamsand spring development
  31. 31. Enriched Biodiversity – linked toapiculture development
  32. 32. Water harvesting
  33. 33. Improved groundwater recharge, shallow wells,water harvesting and Irrigated horticultural cropsdevelopment
  34. 34. Watershed treatment and apiculture developmentBee forages
  35. 35. Apiculture in area closure
  36. 36. Apiculture development
  37. 37. Queen rearing and training centre
  38. 38. Apiculture products marketing – linkagewith processors
  39. 39. Honey shop in Mekelle - branding
  40. 40. Sheep production and marketing
  41. 41. Diversification- Marketing feed for cashincome
  42. 42. Monitoring, evaluation and learning for scaling out lessonsthrough field visits and exchange programs
  43. 43. Atsbi –– forage development 2005 - 2009Forage intervention type Demo area – ha or Scaled out coverage – ha, cuttings PAs, cuttingsDegraded lands 26 ha 581 ha in 8 PAs, harvest once/yrBottomlands; year round cut 69 ha 1746 ha in 13 PAs,and carry harvested 3-4 times/yrBottomlands; partial cut and Modified/traditional 5764 ha in 16 PAscarryPrivate plots Emerged by itself 10 PAsIrrigated sites and gullies 300 cuttings in FTCs > 45,000 cuttingsGrazing land transformed to 95 ha 4 PAscut and carry
  44. 44. Changes in biomass yield in thewatershed continuum
  45. 45. Changes in forage utilization: Sheep fatteningand innovation uptake
  46. 46. Improved forage uptake following demonstration
  47. 47. Apiculture and vegetables developmentApiculture Currently, there are 19,272 hives and colonies - worth of about USD 1.5 - 1.75 million from honey and colony sale benefiting 10,878 households Changes – Increased honey productivity from about 5 kg in 1997 to a record high of 80-100 kg/hive/year in 2007; and improved honey qualityVegetables In 2008, about 11,393 households (33% women) grew vegetables on 1,417 ha with total income of USD 2.5 -3.2 million Irrigated crop growers earn USD 250 - 350 per household per harvest. These innovative practices have been scaled up and out among PAs using field visits, study tours and platforms
  48. 48. Mieso, Oromia
  49. 49. Pastoral and agro-pastoral system
  50. 50. Crop-livestock system
  51. 51. Major livestock species - cattle, goats, camels
  52. 52. Feed resources in the crop-livestock system
  53. 53. Participatory assessment of feed resources inpastoral area
  54. 54. Intrusion of undesirable invasive species Prosopis juliflora Euphorbia spp. Acacia nubica
  55. 55. Major feeding systems
  56. 56. Re-habilitating degraded rangelands
  57. 57. Fodder enclosure management and strategic use The size of private enclosures varies from 0.5 to 1.5 ha. Only 47% practice cut and carry feeding while 53% allow free grazing. The community also rehabilitated communal hill side grazing lands through planting grasses and leguminous forages; which improved NRM, controlled soil erosion and enhanced soil moisture retention. The reward from productivity of enclosures is dependent on management and utilization patterns
  58. 58. Crop residue improvement
  59. 59. Sorghum conservation, chopping and urea treatment forimproved animal production
  60. 60. Production of food/feed crops Sorghum, maize, haricot bean and sweet potato production cover 73%, 22%, 3% and 1%, respectively of the arable land area. They are used as food/feed crops, for cash income, up keep of soil fertility and fulfilling social functions.
  61. 61. Sweet sorghum Cultivated in crop livestock and agro-pastoralist areas on 80% of the arable land (about 13,000 ha). Hardy and drought tolerant, survives 7 shocks per cropping season; stays on field for 7 months and produces tillers. Intercropped with cow pea, pigeon pea, sweet potatoes, haricot beans. Is palatable, has higher voluntary intake, fresh stalk is eaten by humans and stover is used for construction and firewood.
  62. 62. Inter-cropping sweet sorghum with pigeonpea and Rhodes grass
  63. 63. Sweet potato Is a food/feed crop often inter-cropped with cereals and is also used for income generation. Five types cultivated and criteria for selection are early maturity (>120 days), drought resistance, yield and market demand. Tubers for fattening; leaves and vines for milking animals (increases yield and shortens post-partum anoestrus period). According to farmers, cows become over fat and infertile when supplemented with tubers, and fattening cattle do not respond to supplementation with leaves and vines.
  64. 64. Sweet potato
  65. 65. Forage integration into cropping systems
  66. 66. Participatory selection of Napier grass varieties
  67. 67. Improved forages – Napier grass
  68. 68. Fodder development
  69. 69. Fodder development
  70. 70. Fodder development- forage integration intocropping system
  71. 71. Construction of ponds and waterharvesting structures with feed resource
  72. 72. Diarrhea, pneumonia and tick infestation are majorhealth problems
  73. 73. Use of locally available concentrate feedsand other farmer innovations Drenching fenugreek powder mixed with water to clean up the digestive system and internal parasites Feeding maize, haricot bean, sweet potato tubers, grain flours and dough stage maize Drenching sugar, use of salt, mineral soil and small quantities of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) to supplement phosphorus
  74. 74. Concentrate feeds – oil cakes
  75. 75. Urea-molasses blocks
  76. 76. Use of fresh human urine and mineral soils Fresh urine is poured on crop residues and fed to increase feed intake, improve body condition and temperament. Mineral soil (known as ‘Haya’) fed during the early rainy season to provide nutrients and reduce internal parasite burden.
  77. 77. Use of manure and medicinal plants Producers indicated manure application improves water retention and utilization, increases grain yield 2-3 folds & biomass yield by threefold. Use of medicinal plants (‘Harmel’) widely spread innovative practice. The root is chopped, dried, powdered, mixed with water and administered around onset of short rainy season (March to May) to treat diarrhea and internal parasites. Tubers shared as gifts and some sold in local markets.
  78. 78. Some medicinal plants
  79. 79. Input supply and services
  80. 80. Input supply and services
  81. 81. Concentrate feed supply system
  82. 82. Rural shops – Private vet drugs and forageseed – agri-business
  83. 83. Improved Production
  84. 84. Cattle fattening (@ 20,000-35,000 Birr/head –about 2,000 USD)
  85. 85. Improved animal production
  86. 86. Small Ruminants
  87. 87. Regular and strategic destocking In C-L system cattle fattened during abundant period (July - Nov) and sale between Sept and Dec., using buy-plow-fatten-sale and/or buy-fatten-sale system. Emerging system - fatten oxen for 3-6 mo by matching with feed availability (June to Nov) and the market. (Agro) pastoralists annually destock young males before feed exhaustion while in best body condition and fetch higher prices. Producers at best position to buy grain at cheaper prices as this period coincides with the post harvest period of cereal crops.
  88. 88. Market-oriented production system andmarketing groups
  89. 89. Market promotion and linkage – Livestock fair
  90. 90. Marketing and linkages
  91. 91. Market promotion, recognition andlinkages – Awards during livestock fair
  92. 92. Beef and goat meat for domestic market
  93. 93. Farmer innovation in Mieso Fodder enclosure management and strategic use Regular and strategic destocking (matching livestock number with feed resources) Supplement locally available mineral soils Pouring urine/fresh urine from human/ on feeds to enhance intake Deliberate production of food/feed crops (sweet sorghum, maize, beans, sweet potato) Use of organic manure on crop fields Use of supplemental feeds like dough stage maize, sorghum and haricot bean and grains, sweet potato tubers, and various multipurpose leguminous plants Targeted feeding to specific group of animals like lactating cows, fattening animals Cut and carry feeding system with proper shade and feeding and watering troughs
  94. 94. Farmer innovation in Mieso Improving the quality of feed resources through boiling, roasting, soaking, and making flour from grains, Wilting feeds like sweet potato leaves and vines, various weeds and grasses Use of salt consistently Use of locally available medicinal plants as wormicidal and false neem tree seeds against mild level of bloat cases Improving presentation of crop residues like sorghum stover and maize stalk by chopping Massaging finished cattle at night
  95. 95. Key issues for integrated approachto commodity development Knowledge Management Capacity Development Commodity NOT Technology Development  Production Technologies  Input supply system and service provision including innovative credit  Marketing and linkages Lessons for scaling out and up
  96. 96. Conclusions and Outlook Key factors to stimulate local innovation - economic incentives, erratic rainfall and drought, food insecurity, strong social bond and agile community asset, etc. Determination of the community to learn to innovate and internalize innovativeness serve as a spring board in adapting, sustaining natural resources and transforming the livelihoods of the rural community.
  97. 97. Some interesting landscapes
  98. 98. Thank You!!www.ipms-ethiopia.org

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