Integrated management of Aflatoxins in groundnuts


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Presented by Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Fen Beed, Peter Cotty and Kola Masha at the Science Forum 2013, Bonn, Germany, 23‒25 September 2013

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  • PACA led by African Union and adds credibility to cause and opens doors to new donors Also increases visibility of aflasafe as not just solving an agricultural problem but also trade and human health
  • There are many atoxigenicsSelect safe and endemic strains best adapted to cropping systems, ecosystems, & climates
  • Integrated management of Aflatoxins in groundnuts

    1. 1. Integrated management of aflatoxins in groundnuts Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, IITA-Nigeria Fen Beed, IITA-Tanzania Peter Cotty, USDA-ARS Kola Masha, Doreo Partners Breakout Session 4 on Food Security Science Forum 2013 Nutrition and health outcomes: targets for agricultural research, Bonn, Germany, 23‒25 September 2013
    2. 2. Elements of Integrated Management • Awareness – entire range of value chain actors • Advocacy – continental (PACA), regional, national, investors • Technology • Training – farmers, transporters, traders, regulators, consumers • Policies – standards, harmonization, trade • Institutions – regulators, markets, testing, private sector • Trade / Markets – food/feed processors, poultry/fish industry • Public good – home consumption; urban and rural markets; WFP, HGSF
    3. 3. Agriculture Based Prevention of Aflatoxin- related Food Security and Health Effects • Pre-harvest – Resistant cultivars, if available – Biological control, e.g., aflasafe – Irrigation and water conservation practices • Post-harvest – Sorting – Insect control – Improved drying and storage – Food/feed processing methods – Alternative uses including blending
    4. 4. • Aflatoxin is a hidden problem • Chemical analysis required • Awareness is low • Long incubation for expression of health impacts • Regulations either non-existent or poorly enforced • Market does not usually discriminate • Demonstration of product value – health & income • Lack of biopesticide manufacturers • Too many components in integrated management – some are not special for aflatoxin management Risks / Challenges
    5. 5. Dr Akin Adesina Policy Statement: Honourable Minister of Agriculture, Nigeria “All parties involved, led by IITA and the government, have critical roles to ensure that Aflasafe treated food crops are successfully introduced into the market in the next 5 years”
    6. 6. Strategic Plan to Drive Sustainability Leverage Strong Regulatory Enforcement to Sustain Premium Market for Aflasafe maize 8 1 Year 2 3 4 5 PACA and Pull Mechanism Generate Supply of Cost Effective Low Aflatoxin Maize Enforce Regulatory Policy Enable Market Forces to Drive Sustainability Promote Health Awareness to Value Chain Actors Policy: Build Regulators Capacity Policy: Develop regulatory framework Policy: Phased in regulatory enforcement mechanism Market Forces Health Awareness: Farmer Focus Health Awareness: Industry Focus Health Awareness: End Consumer 1 2 3 4
    7. 7. Pilot Implementation • Value chain-centric: Farmers’ interest as the foundation of the action • Action-oriented: Using practical methods to actively solve problems, not just talking about ideas, plans, or theories • Innovation platform: problem solving through actors working regularly together to address issues and common challenges.
    8. 8. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Markets for Aflasafe Doreo Partner analysis Poultry industry Export-oriented aggregators Food processors Large commercial farmers Smallholder farmers Market based • Poultry feed • Premium food market AgResults (Incentive- cum-market based) Growth Enhancement Scheme? marketdemandfor Aflasafe • 60% maize consumed by farmers • 40% sold in the market
    9. 9. Innovation Platform • Platform meetings with leadership and members of Poultry Association of Nigeria, feed manufacturers, maize aggregators, aflasafe farmers, vet professionals and regulators • Poultry farmers to buy all aflasafe maize at a negotiated premium • Agriculture ministry to fund NAFDAC to set up aflatoxin testing facilities in each state www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium
    10. 10. Willingness to Pay www.iita.orgMycored Europe, 28 May, 2013A member of CGIAR consortium 100% 99% 83% 60% 25% 19% 34% 31% 18% 12% 5% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% $0 $3 - $6 $6 -$9 $9 - $12 $12 - $15 $15 - $19 $20 Farmers who have used Aflasafe (n=246) Farmers who have not used Aflasafe (n=119) Target Farm Gate Price Range • All prior-users willing to pay; almost 50% non-users willing to pay • Prior-users willing to pay more than non-users Source: G. Okpachu & T. Abdoulaye Farm gate price: $15.6/ha
    11. 11. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Aflasafe Plan & Plant Capacity: 5 tons/hour
    12. 12. www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium Product Types National Products Products ready for registration Products under testing Strain development in progress Aflasafe-NigeriaTM Aflasafe-SenegalTM Aflasafe-KenyaTM etc… Aflasafe-WestTM Aflasafe-EastTM Aflasafe-SouthTM Regional Products Senegal Mali Burkina Ghana Nigeria Kenya Tanzania Mozambique Zambia
    13. 13. Likelihood of success • Has the potential of reducing aflatoxin levels by up to 95% or more • Biocontrol by itself can reduce toxin levels by more than 80% • Other technical approaches can perform supportive functions BUT • Success will be determined how well policy and institutional frameworks are implemented
    14. 14. Partners• Who is, needs to be, involved to make this research get to scale
    15. 15. Return on Investment • Nigeria and Senegal major groundnut exporters in 1960s. Compliance has economic incentives • Senegal:. • Increased export volume and price differential would annually add $281 million value to groundnut export. • For confectionary groundnut, adherence to Good Management Practices would increase export value by US$ 45 million annually. • Best quality exported; poorer quality consumed domestically. • Biocontrol: ROI – 5 to 25 times for cancer reduction. 167,000 DALYs could be saved. • More work needed World Bank; Mbaye (2004) Peanut Maize Coffee Cocoa Groundnut Pyramids in Nigeria during 1960s Pyramids in Egypt?
    16. 16. Punch Line • Impact of aflatoxins have several development dimensions: – post-harvest losses, nutrition, health, crops, livestock, fish, trad e, markets, policies, institutions and politics • Reduction of aflatoxin will improve human health, increase farm income, improve profitability of animal industries, increase regional and international trade, and reputation of African products in global markets