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Innovation systems approach for agricultural transformation


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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur to the Oromiya BoARD, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26 July 2007.

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Innovation systems approach for agricultural transformation

  1. 1. Innovation Systems approach for agricultural transformation Ranjitha Puskur Presented to the Oromiya BoARD 26 July 2007 Addis Ababa
  2. 5. Overview of the presentation <ul><li>What is innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Innovation system? </li></ul><ul><li>What does innovation capacity entail? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Innovation systems approach and what is its added value? </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for extension </li></ul>
  3. 6. What is innovation? <ul><li>Change in practices, in the established way of doing things – technological, organisational, institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Use of new knowledge or new use of existing knowledge and its application for social and/or economic use </li></ul>
  4. 7. What is innovation? <ul><ul><li>Indigenous knowledge of one community may become an innovation for another community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be induced or self-initiated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical or incremental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often a continuous process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be triggered in many ways – market, knowledge, resource, policy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. What is Innovation? <ul><li>Process of not only creating knowledge, but making it available and putting it into use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine different sources of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a new idea or a novel combination of existing approaches/knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process relies on interaction between different sources of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of diverse stakeholders important </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. What is Innovation? <ul><li>Institutions (working practices) determine the extent to which they can engage in interactive processes </li></ul><ul><li>Wider policy and institutional environment shapes process through incentives and norms </li></ul>
  7. 10. Innovation…. <ul><li>It involves putting ideas, knowledge and technology to work in a manner that brings about a significant improvement in performance </li></ul><ul><li>It is not just an idea – but rather an idea that has been made to work </li></ul>
  8. 11. Innovation…. <ul><li>It can involve “a better way to do an old thing” or “a better thing to do” </li></ul><ul><li>Not just doing the right thing, but doing it in the right way and continuously assessing how well it is done </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>If new technology is simply delivered, innovation will not necessarily take place </li></ul><ul><li>Technology needs to be integrated with other sources of knowledge (farmers, market etc) to allow it to be used in locally relevant ways </li></ul>
  10. 13. Innovation…. <ul><li>Innovation is a requirement- not just a nice to have, but a necessity </li></ul><ul><li>It is not just about science and technology, it is about people, relationships, processes and resources </li></ul><ul><li>It is both technological and social (organizational and behavioral) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be focused on incremental change or on breakthroughs </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Innovation is a social process involving many different actors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation processes can be enhanced by creating more possibilities for actors to interact </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on getting the right actors together and getting them to work in certain way </li></ul><ul><li>Concern here is with finding practical ways and means of improving these systems </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Innovation is not about hiring an Einstein or creating a slogan. Everybody is capable of it, and the first sign that it is happening is when people work together, excited because they want to be there, focused on finding a solution to a challenge they all understand (Smit 2000) </li></ul>
  13. 16. Why is innovation important? <ul><li>Economic improvement is largely a result of the application of knowledge in productive activities and the associated adjustments in social institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and technology are also needed to transform countries from reliance on the exploitation of natural resources to technological innovation as the basis for development. </li></ul>
  14. 17. What is an Innovation system? <ul><li>a network of all public and private sector organizations, enterprises, and individuals involved in the process of knowledge creation, dissemination, adoption/adaptation and use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behavior and performance. </li></ul>
  15. 18. AIS
  16. 19. Partnerships form the core.. <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints, Opportunities, Technology, production contexts, market conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development and deployment of new products and processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social and economic change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 20. IS Perspective <ul><li>Technologies alone not enough to bring about innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships are vital for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Service delivery systems and capacity to innovate are critical in defining the innovation process </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and interactions of diverse agents => Knowledge exchange, technological and institutional change </li></ul>
  18. 21. What is Innovation capacity? <ul><li>capacity in the sense of the nature and patterns of linkages and interaction and the ways of working, mechanisms of governance and the policy environment needed to bring about pro-poor innovation </li></ul><ul><li>capacity to respond to changing conditions (production, marketing, policy etc) </li></ul>
  19. 22. 2 elements of Innovation capacity <ul><li>patterns of partnership between scientific, developmental, service delivery organizations and poor farmers and the way this can lead to collective investigation, design and use of location specific technologies, agricultural practices and institutional arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>the new skills and insights that farmers, NGOs, market actors, service delivery agencies and scientists get from each other when they interact through partnerships. </li></ul>
  20. 23. What is Innovation capacity? <ul><li>increasingly what is required is not generic technical solutions to agricultural problems, but instead local capacities to identify problems and develop solutions </li></ul><ul><li>this does not mean that farmers can solve all their problems themselves. Rather that there is a need to embed farmers in a network of supportive partnerships so they can draw knowledge from others, and combine this with their own and generate innovations in farm practice </li></ul><ul><li>the most important implication for policy of this is that common ways of promoting innovation in farm practice such as technology transfer need to be supplemented by approaches which focus on developing rural innovation capacity in this more holistic sense </li></ul>
  21. 25. Innovation capacity depends on.. <ul><li>Social and institutional arrangements to mobilise different sorts of knowledge that create novelty on a continuous basis </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge support arrangements that are flexible, relevant, responsive and multi-organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional arrangements and partnership patterns which should be continuously adjusting through learning and in response to changing circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation capacity development is highly context specific and needs to be built in a locally relevant manner </li></ul><ul><li>Need for new habits and practices that promote the behaviour needed to sustain the above </li></ul><ul><li>There are no ‘ optimal’ arrangements, but only ‘ adaptive’ </li></ul>
  22. 26. Nature of innovation and innovation capacity <ul><li>Research is an important component—but not always the central component—of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>In the contemporary agricultural sector, competitiveness depends on collaboration for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Social and environmental sustainability are integral to economic success and must be reflected in interventions </li></ul><ul><li>The market is not sufficient to promote interaction—the public sector has a central role to play </li></ul>
  23. 27. Nature of innovation and innovation capacity <ul><li>Interventions are essential for building the capacity and fostering the learning that enable a sector to respond to continuous competitive challenges </li></ul><ul><li>The organization of rural stakeholders is a central development concept. It is a common theme in innovation systems development and in numerous agricultural and rural development efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Actors that are critical for coordinating innovation systems at the sector level are either overlooked or missing </li></ul><ul><li>A wide set of attitudes and practices must be cultivated to foster a culture of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>The enabling environment is a key component of innovation capacity. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Example of innovation processes and partnerships Banana Metema
  25. 29. Innovation triggers <ul><li>Mainly market and knowledge triggers </li></ul>
  26. 30. Roles of Actors and linkages <ul><li>Government, an important player </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training support, planning, farmer mobilisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing role of private sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly into input supply and service provision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No role of financial sector (credit) so far </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinating bodies for co-ordinating and managing linkages?? </li></ul>
  27. 31. Roles of Actors and linkages <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training, technology provision, technical support, monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer mobilisation, technical backstopping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External agents (IPMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary spanning, facilitation of training, access to technology and technical support, market linkage facilitation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Actor roles.. <ul><li>Varying roles over time, multiple roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers becoming input suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External agents like IPMS played a catalytic role initially, but government and farmers are taking the lead subsequently </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing knowledge and experience exchange between farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Market information??? </li></ul>
  29. 33. Forage development in Alamata – Actors in 2005
  30. 34. Forage development – Now..
  31. 35. Actor roles <ul><li>Roles important – actors can change </li></ul><ul><li>But all the roles have to be fulfilled.. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at actors who are also important for women </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most critical roles? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they all being fulfilled by existing actors? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, which actors can fill the gaps? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the future roles required to enhance market oriented production? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the potential actors who could play this role? </li></ul>
  32. 36. Actor linkages <ul><li>Which linkages are most critical? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they all existing now? </li></ul><ul><li>If yes, how can they be strengthened? </li></ul><ul><li>What other linkages need to be built? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will play the linkage facilitation role? </li></ul>
  33. 37. Implications .. <ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes, habits and previous experiences determine the presence and/or extent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be developed on a system basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also in marketing, entrepreneurial and business skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity to forge linkages and manage the partnership processes – ‘changing to cope with change’ </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Implications.. <ul><li>Enabling environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational transformation – culture which promotes linking and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe spaces for experimentation and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive and reward system which encourages innovation and outcome orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawing on principles and experiential learning Vs blueprints to go to scale </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships need to be stimulated- do not happen automatically - Who plays the boundary spanning role – institutionalising / formalising </li></ul>
  35. 39. Implications.. <ul><li>creating space for reflection and learning in the crowded schedule of innovation partnerships.. </li></ul><ul><li>systematizing the reflection and learning process </li></ul>
  36. 40. What is ISA all about? <ul><li>Challenges are changing and becoming more complex </li></ul><ul><li>As a response, paradigms of Ag R&D have been changing </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and knowledge are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for Ag Development </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation is not a continuous process- continuous feedback loops exist </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation processes shaped by learning by doing, using, interacting and, as a result of formal discovery process </li></ul>
  37. 41. Added value of ISA <ul><li>The way we generate, communicate and use knowledge is changing e.g., ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Ag problems are more complex- not a single actor has all the capacities and capabilities to address them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard functions- R&D, scientific and tech services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft functions- policy making, co-ordinating or catalytic roles, interface between hard functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly markets drive ag development- globalisation, supermarket revolution, production- consumption systems </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing role of private sector </li></ul>
  38. 42. Added value of ISA <ul><li>New and very dynamic markets for ag products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Not just technology and production, but organisations (attitudes, practices and new ways of working), management, marketing changes- new types of knowledge which is not usually associated with conventional Ag R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on actors and processes </li></ul>
  39. 43. ISA.. <ul><li>provides a framework linking two critical estates that have in many senses drifted apart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first is the research establishment and its unshakable belief that technology development is the way to solve the problems of the poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second is the development sector and its understandable disillusionment with weak performance of science and technology to deliver its promise of social and economic development. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. ISA.. <ul><li>The essence of the framework is the proposition that technology and other forms of knowledge can and does bring about the innovations (technical, institutional, market, organisational) needed for development progress. </li></ul><ul><li>However this will only take place when the correct conditions are created for bringing different ideas and bodies of knowledge together and allowing new ideas that emerge from this to be put into productive use. </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>Emphasis on interdependence and non-linearity in innovation processes </li></ul><ul><li>Demand- a determinant of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger issues come into focus- starting at the knowledge application end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why farmers innovate or why they don’t? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the constraints that hold them back- prices? Technology? Markets? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are farmers passive recipients of technology? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the roles of input suppliers, co-ops, traders, processors, NGOs etc. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. ISA … <ul><li>Particularly for policy making.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to focus on enhancing interactions between actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From technology generation and dissemination to innovation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of analysis shifts from internal working of an economic system to the way it interacts with outside world </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. ISA … <ul><li>Analytical tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand imbalances and distortions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstacles to well-functioning systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy making support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider analytical lens </li></ul></ul>
  44. 48. Challenges <ul><li>Inclusive but complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradeoffs between breadth (broader picture) and depth (specific details) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An IS analysis spanning entire Ag sector might be too ambitious and abstract- not analytically useful </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity- institutional environment and capacity/assets – blueprints will not work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character of local government and commitment to Rural Development (decentralised and more development oriented) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 49. Challenges <ul><li>Weak infrastructure and poor market access </li></ul><ul><li>No organised articulation of farmer demand for innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t perfectly understand ag problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot imagine all possible solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural and organizational change- a long and slow process! </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>What are the implications for Extension??? </li></ul>
  47. 51. What are innovative extension systems? <ul><li>recognition and utilization of multiple sources of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>focus on capacity to solve problems rather than just training for technical capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>adopting an interactive communication function </li></ul><ul><li>viewing extension as a co-learning process and </li></ul><ul><li>institutional pluralism </li></ul>
  48. 52. From Extension to Extension-plus From To Form/content Tech dissemination Supporting rural livelihoods Improving farm productivity Improving farm and non-farm income Forming farmer groups Building networks Providing services Enabling farmers to access services from other agencies Market information Market development M&E Input & output targets Learning Planning & Implementation Doing it alone Partnerships Sources of innovation in extension Centrally generated Locally evolved (through experimentation)
  49. 53. From Extension to Extension-plus From To Approaches Fixed/uniform Evolving/diverse Staff capacity development Training Learning by doing, facilitated experimentation Capacity dev of extension system Personnel and infrastructure Dev of linkages and networks Policy approach Prescriptive/blue prints Facilitating evolution of locally relevant approaches Introducing new working practices Staff training Changing organisational culture through action learning Underpinning paradigm Technology transfer Innovation system
  50. 54. Making extension systems more efficient - Six principles <ul><li>A sound agricultural policy is indispensable </li></ul><ul><li>Extension consists of ‘ facilitation ’ as much if not more than ‘technology transfer’ </li></ul><ul><li>Producers are clients, sponsors and stakeholders , rather than beneficiaries of ag extension </li></ul><ul><li>Market demands create an impetus for a new relationship between farmers and private suppliers of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>New perspectives are needed regarding private actors </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism and decentralized activities require coordination and dialogue between actors </li></ul>
  51. 55. New goals for extension <ul><li>The goal of extension should move from technology dissemination to promoting innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>This would mean that extension perform a wider range of roles. This include, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leading the innovation agenda; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organize producers and rural poor and build their capacities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building coalition of different stakeholders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote information flow; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiment with and learn from new approaches, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act as a “bridging organisation” that access knowledge, skills and services from a wide range of organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performing these wider roles is important for extension to reinvent its future and to be relevant to the evolving rural context </li></ul>
  52. 56. New framework for extension planning <ul><li>The current linear framework of “Research-Extension–Farmer” based on the transfer of technology paradigm is no longer relevant for addressing the wider extension agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension needs to embrace systems frameworks such as innovation systems framework, which accommodates more number of actors, their interactions, role of institutions and learning to reinvent its future. </li></ul><ul><li>This is especially so in dealing with the poor. Quite often, communities continue to remain poor due to weak, non-existent and exploitative relationships with actors who have access to new production inputs, services and knowledge. </li></ul>
  53. 57. New framework for extension planning <ul><li>Addressing exploitative and weak relationship necessitates provision of a range of support to the poor that improves their capacity to access, adapt and use knowledge, inputs and services. </li></ul><ul><li>The linear framework restricts extension’s linkages to only research and farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>While several actors in the innovation systems need scientific expertise to solve problems, the linear framework restricts the role of research to provision of only new technologies to farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Linear framework is no longer valid to reinvent either extension or research!! </li></ul>
  54. 58. Partnerships <ul><li>Extension needs a wider range of skills to address the increasingly complex rural innovation agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnering with other actors with these skills and expertise is the only way forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships have been generally weak in the public sector extension. </li></ul><ul><li>While extension needs to partner with several other actors, what is often discussed is its linkage with research. </li></ul><ul><li>Even after constant efforts, its links with research remains weak and continues to be a matter of great concern. </li></ul>
  55. 59. Partnerships <ul><li>More number of research-extension meetings is not a solution. What is important is the nature and quality of the relationship which has to be reflected in more joint activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Research and Extension needs partnerships with other wide range of actors. </li></ul><ul><li>The current working practices in extension favour independence and not interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, partnership is a skill that could be perfected only through practice and therefore it has to consciously interact more closely with other actors to develop partnership arrangements. </li></ul>
  56. 60. Technical and institutional innovations <ul><li>Extension has to deal with both technical and institutional innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventionally extension was dealing with only the technical innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Institutional innovations” or the new ways of doing things includes, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new ways of organizing production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>input management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sharing common resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new way of providing extension support. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional innovations are going to be equally or more important in dealing with complex challenges facing agriculture and rural development. </li></ul>
  57. 61. Technical and institutional innovations <ul><li>Technical innovation need not have to be the starting point for extension. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension has several other things to do even in a situation where relevant technical innovations do not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and institutional innovation ideally should go hand in hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Quite often, institutional innovations are even necessary for generating and promoting technical innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional innovations can flourish only in a situation where sufficient flexibility and freedom to experiment exists. </li></ul><ul><li>However, centralised arrangements for funding, implementation, monitoring and evaluation have been found to effectively stifle generation of locally relevant institutional innovations. </li></ul>
  58. 62. Capacity Development <ul><li>There should be a mechanism for all actors in the innovation system (including extension) for continuous development of their capacities to deal with evolving needs of the sector. </li></ul><ul><li>The actors should be able to integrate different kinds of knowledge; respond rapidly to opportunities and threats; and sensitive to the needs of the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity development in extension is conventionally equated with training on new technology or new extension technique. This is not enough to develop the capacity to innovate. </li></ul><ul><li>Two important means of developing capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing new platforms for interaction by various actors (eg: stakeholder dialogues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promoting joint interventions by a coalition of actors </li></ul></ul>
  59. 63. <ul><li>FTCs as knowledge centres – nodes for experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate a diversity of extension innovations that respond adaptively to local and evolving circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognise value of diversity of approaches and arrangements – flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from experiences to distill principles for scaling up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to pilot innovative approaches in few FTCs and scale up based on experiences and lessons learnt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No blue prints even for market-oriented extension support </li></ul></ul>Some thoughts on the way forward..
  60. 64. Optimal use of FTCs <ul><li>Depends on.. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and relevance of services and training offered – ensured through community consultations </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and financial support to DAs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective linkages of FTCs with woreda level marketing and co-operative experts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous upgrading of skills of DAs </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of adequate and relevant training and demonstration materials , both related to production and marketing and, their continuous updating </li></ul><ul><li>Effective inclusion of gender and HIV concerns in extension activities </li></ul>
  61. 65. Critical role of M&E <ul><li>Review the current M&E plan </li></ul><ul><li>Revise it to make it more learning oriented - move towards more innovative targets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome monitoring and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainstream planning, implementation and M&E tools </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability to farmers or FAs - farmer control over R&E resources </li></ul>
  62. 66. Equity.. <ul><li>Integration of HIV and gender concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate into TVET and university curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate short awareness sessions into all training programmes/courses </li></ul></ul>
  63. 67. Organizational culture changes <ul><li>Centralized modes of planning stifle innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of assessing performance in terms of technology adoption and not outcomes or impacts </li></ul><ul><li>History of regarding only successes and reluctance to report and analyse reasons of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of working independently of other agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Up-ward accountability for resource utilization rather than output achievement and client satisfaction </li></ul>
  64. 68. Finally.. <ul><li>Crafting institutional reforms is a pragmatic, exploratory and social learning process that unfolds over years and decades </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate a few pilots (learn by doing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment with institutional innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from experiences of others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach less important than its ingredients </li></ul>
  65. 69. <ul><li>Thank you!!! </li></ul>