ILRI’s experience with PPPs in pro-poorlivestock development research and its uptakeand applicationDerek Baker14th Annual ...
Outline1. PPP and research for development2. PPP in livestock projects3. Challenges for/in/with PPPs4. Selected ILRI exper...
PPP and R4DAnandajayasekeram and Puskur (2009) offerclassifications of PPPs involving research organisations.Based on purp...
PPP and international R4D organisationsSpielman et al. (2007) identified & examined CGIAR PPPs inresearch:Few partnerships...
PPP and livestock developmentRich and Narrod (2010) identified possible PPP roles inenhancing smallholder access in High V...
PPP and institutional roles in the supply chainmanagement of high-value agricultureResearch:traditional institutional role...
What makes a livestock project work?Baker and Wanyoike (2013) measured and analysed the success ofpro-poor livestock devel...
Variable Coeff. P>zIntercept term* -8.67 0.06ProjectobjectiveImproved human nutrition / food security -2.32 0.46Reduction ...
Factors influencing success (by various defn.s)Success byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefitsNo. of HHwithinc...
Factors influencing various individual aspectsof project successSuccess byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefit...
Success byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefitsNo. of HHwithincreasedsalesNo. of HHwithincreasedbuyersNo. HHge...
Examples of PPP in ILRI researchFeeds development• Partnership between Novusand ILRI + developmentpartners on BMGF-fundedE...
Examples of PPP in ILRI researchEast Coast Fever Vaccinedevelopment• Multiple governments + ILRI +university and nationalr...
Examples of PPP in ILRI research (on-going)Maximising smallholder benefits from export sales• Three contrasting countries ...
Examples of PPP in ILRI researchFodder genebank interaction with private companies• Purchase and supply of seeds from priv...
Examples of PPP in ILRI researchOrganisational developmentin smallholder dairy• Addressing jointly publichealth and smallh...
ConclusionsPPP is present in livestock development, some evidencethat it contributes to project successFew guidelines on...
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given ...
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ILRI’s experience with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in pro-poor livestock development research and its uptake and application

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Presented by Derek Baker at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) on pro-poor livestock research and development, Berlin, 22-24 May 2013

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ILRI’s experience with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in pro-poor livestock development research and its uptake and application

  1. 1. ILRI’s experience with PPPs in pro-poorlivestock development research and its uptakeand applicationDerek Baker14th Annual Meeting of the Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) on pro-poor livestockresearch and development“Development of Livestock Value Chains through strengthened Public-PrivateCooperation”May 22-24, 2013, Berlin
  2. 2. Outline1. PPP and research for development2. PPP in livestock projects3. Challenges for/in/with PPPs4. Selected ILRI experience5. Conclusions
  3. 3. PPP and R4DAnandajayasekeram and Puskur (2009) offerclassifications of PPPs involving research organisations.Based on purpose:• Research partnership—cooperative agreement forconducting joint research• Exchange partnership— information, materials,staff, intellectual property• Service partnership — legal environment
  4. 4. PPP and international R4D organisationsSpielman et al. (2007) identified & examined CGIAR PPPs inresearch:Few partnerships:• are explicitly designed to facilitate joint innovation• provide for effective management of risks• provide effective analysis of their poverty-targeting strategies.Authors advocate:• combining explicit knowledge exchange processes• communication platforms to assign roles, responsibilities• comprehensive risk management and mitigation strategies• improved quality of analysis of the impact pathways
  5. 5. PPP and livestock developmentRich and Narrod (2010) identified possible PPP roles inenhancing smallholder access in High Value markets.Examined numerous roles of PPP (production, inputs,logistics, credit,….. and research)Identified PPP roles in supply chain co-ordination
  6. 6. PPP and institutional roles in the supply chainmanagement of high-value agricultureResearch:traditional institutional rolesRoles for PPP inSupply ChainManagementMarket failuresobservedPossible entrypoint for PPPs andNGOsPublic R&D andproduction forseeds, inputs,varieties; inputprice policiesPrivate R&Dandproduction forseeds, inputs,varietiesDevelopment ofnew technologies toraise productivity ofhigh-demandcommoditiesPrivateprofitability ofvarieties withlow or negativesocial benefitsResearchpartnerships todevelop sociallybeneficial inputs toproductionPPP roles in support processes in the value chainExtension Infrastructure InformationservicesCertification, gradesand standardsCo-ordinationmechanismsTo leveragepublic andprivatedelivery ofspecifictypes ofservicesTo jointlyfinance andmaintain roads,storagefacilities, etc.To integratepublic andprivate actorsTo distributemarketinformation3rd partycertificationagencies that jointlymanage quality andfood safety3rd party underwritingand monitoring ofcontractsTo promote contractenforcement
  7. 7. What makes a livestock project work?Baker and Wanyoike (2013) measured and analysed the success ofpro-poor livestock development projects:Sample of 60 livestock projectsHighlysuccessful,39%Moderatelysuccessful,37%Largely notsuccessful,24%
  8. 8. Variable Coeff. P>zIntercept term* -8.67 0.06ProjectobjectiveImproved human nutrition / food security -2.32 0.46Reduction in poverty/vulnerability 1.41 0.64ProjectactivitiesInstitutional development** 3.15 0.02Research component** 4.34 0.04Project also had an agriculture component** -3.60 0.04RisksencounteredMarket Dysfunction 2.73 0.39Reliability of government partners* -3.51 0.05Species Small ruminants 0.27 0.86Pigs 1.33 0.67Poultry* -4.85 0.06OthervariablesProject financed through a loan -2.50 0.33Size of project budget (millions of US$)* 1.99 0.06Number of types of beneficiaries* 1.79 0.06Logit analysis of determinants of success
  9. 9. Factors influencing success (by various defn.s)Success byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefitsNo. of HHwithincreasedsalesNo. of HHwithincreasedbuyersNo. HHgettinghigher salespricesType of model OLS LOGIT Ordered ProbitProject ObjectivesFood security *Improvements in marketingTechnical livestock production *Partners rolesIntern. NGO leads coordinationIntern. NGO works with farmersNational gvt. leads coordination *National gvt. works with farmers *Yellow=Negative; Purple=positive; The asterisks show the levelof significance of coefficients
  10. 10. Factors influencing various individual aspectsof project successSuccess byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefitsNo. of HHwithincreasedsalesNo. of HHwithincreasedbuyersNo.HHgettinghigher salespricesType of model OLS LOGIT Ordered ProbitBudget HolderInternational actor **Non governmental agency **Funding agency **Risks encounteredPrice and cost changesMarket dysfunction *Political changeReliability of govt. partnersYellow=Negative; Purple=positive; Stars show the level ofsignificance of coefficientsFactors influencing success (various defn.s -2)
  11. 11. Success byactivity-output-objectiveSustainabilityofbenefitsNo. of HHwithincreasedsalesNo. of HHwithincreasedbuyersNo. HHgettinghigher salespricesSpeciesCattle **Small ruminants **Pigs *Poultry *Others *Other project featuresWhether project is participatory *Institutional components *Research component ** **Success in activity completion **Project size *** *Factors influencing success (various defn.s -3)
  12. 12. Examples of PPP in ILRI researchFeeds development• Partnership between Novusand ILRI + developmentpartners on BMGF-fundedEast Africa DairyDevelopment Project• Improving dairy productionthrough:• Calf diet (Kenya)• Dry season supplementblock (Uganda)• Proof of concept + capacitybuilding0102030405060700 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8BodyWeight(kg)WeekMilk Replacer Pellet Meal
  13. 13. Examples of PPP in ILRI researchEast Coast Fever Vaccinedevelopment• Multiple governments + ILRI +university and nationalresearch partners, acrossseveral tasks in vaccinedevelopment + treatmentprotocol development• Private sector encountereddifficulties withapproval/registration in severalcountries
  14. 14. Examples of PPP in ILRI research (on-going)Maximising smallholder benefits from export sales• Three contrasting countries (approaches):• Botswana (parastatal + government) (ACIAR-funded)• Swaziland (private sector exporters + banks + governmentsupport agencies) (IFAD-funded)• Somaliland (quasi-government organisations and NGO TerraNuova) (Danida-funded)Engaging the private sector in CAADP process• Roles for private sector (via ReSAKSS):• Policy advocacy• Delivery of appropriate technologies• Improvement of distribution systems for products and inputs
  15. 15. Examples of PPP in ILRI researchFodder genebank interaction with private companies• Purchase and supply of seeds from private producers/firms:• Ensures survival of seed production capacity despite fluctuatingmarkets• Corrects for lack of private sector interest due to many fodderplants’ clonal propagation or long reproductive cycle• Collaboration in research and information campaigns• Promotes genetic conservation• Promotes feed solutions
  16. 16. Examples of PPP in ILRI researchOrganisational developmentin smallholder dairy• Addressing jointly publichealth and smallholderincomes: DFID-funded;included governmentpartnersMilk TraderTrainingServiceProviders(BDS)RegulatoryAuthorityAccreditation & monitoringReportingTrainingguidesHygieniccans• Use of BusinessDevelopmentServices (BDS)to mobilisestakeholders
  17. 17. ConclusionsPPP is present in livestock development, some evidencethat it contributes to project successFew guidelines on when/where it might be appropriatePPP has been slow to develop in R4D, and lacks someintuitively desirable functionsPPP plays a market failure-correcting role in technologydelivery and organisational development, but• PPPs have not generally emerged as 3rd party actors• PPPs’ potential for risk management is not widely exploited• PPP role in capital mobilisation is largely not examined• Policy development does not necessarily accompany PPPs• PPPs cross frontiers awkwardly
  18. 18. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.better lives through livestockilri.org

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