ILRI-BMZ project country report/Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005  Lemma Gizachew   Second Annual Review and Planning Worksho...
Project team members <ul><li>Lemma Gizachew (NPO) </li></ul><ul><li>Ulfina Gelmessa (SNR) </li></ul><ul><li>Zelalem Belayn...
I. AnGR: Country context
Animal/plant genetic resources of Ethiopia  <ul><li>AnGR is vital biodiversity component  </li></ul><ul><li>Center of orig...
Contributing factors for richness in biodiversity <ul><li>Diverse ecological niches (32 AEZs) or habitats </li></ul><ul><l...
Is  this country benefiting from this rich AnGR? No
Why ? <ul><li>Attitudinal problem (mind set up) </li></ul><ul><li>Low R and D attention on indigenous AnGR </li></ul><ul><...
Outstanding threats to indigenous AnGR <ul><li>Breed replacement ,  crossbreeding ,  interbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Habit...
What does the future hold for AnGR? <ul><li>Appreciation of contribution: poverty reduction ,  improving livelihood & agri...
Three years ILRI-BMZ project outputs <ul><li>Community & priority breed identification </li></ul><ul><li>Community based a...
2004/05 plan & accomplishment ? Livestock characterization  PRA survey/reporting back workshop  Community & priority bre...
2004/05 plan & accomplishment cont’d ? Survey instrument design & sample selection Accomplishment  Planned act i v i t i e...
II. Community & priority breed identification
Community & priority breed identification <ul><li>Consultation worship (relevant stakeholders) </li></ul><ul><li>Group dis...
III. Capacity building
Capacity building <ul><li>PRA for research team </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers field school training for trainers </li></ul><ul...
IV. Literature  review on Horro    cattle
Collection & compilation  of information  <ul><li>Publications in center and national libraries consulted </li></ul><ul><l...
Origin & distribution <ul><li>Name derived from sub province Horro Guduru </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed through Wellega , ...
Breed characteristics <ul><li>Intermediate Sanga (medium to large) </li></ul><ul><li>Small & finely shaped head </li></ul>...
Productive performance <ul><li>Milk yield of pure Horro: 0.4-6 l/day </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation length: 4-12 months </li>...
Reproductive performance <ul><li>Age at 1 st  mating (heifer): 2.73-4.30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Age at 1 st  calving: 3.5...
Gaps <ul><li>Characterization work incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>No emphases on improvement thru selection </li></ul><ul><l...
V. Livestock production & marketing system appraisal (PRA)
Major objectives <ul><li>Adequately describe the project study sites </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major roles livestock ...
Methodology <ul><li>Participatory situation analyses </li></ul>
Source of info <ul><li>Secondary data (Agric Dev’t /PA offices) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct observation by multidisciplinary ...
Data analyses <ul><li>Use of PRA tools (triangulation ,  conceptualization ,   tabulation ,  etc) </li></ul>
Findings
Household size & structure <ul><li>HH size:4-16 </li></ul><ul><li>HH structure:Young> old </li></ul>
Household wealth class  3 Poor 4-9 Medium >10 Rich Heads of cattle Wealth class
Percent wealth class in selected PA/ implication? / 39 5 8 3 Seyo-Gambela 26 33 41 Dano-Shenen 6 25 67 Gida-Abu Rich  Medi...
Land use pattern from community resource map/ focus of feed intervention?  /  5.67 6.7 64.3 23.5 Average 4 7 67 22 Sayo-Ga...
Rainfall pattern
HH food availability/ coping strategies? /
Relative contribution of different livestock spp.
Relative monetary return from livestock products
HH expenditure /  negligible for livestock  /
Sources of credit & relative importance 4 Arata  3 Idir 2 Neighbor 1 Relatives  Relative importance Source
Labor calendar / alternative use of labor at slack period? /
Purpose  of keeping livestock <ul><li>Sources of incidental expense </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of food </li></ul><ul><li>Fi...
Preferred cattle traits <ul><li>Coat color (disease/flies/ feeding response)  </li></ul><ul><li>Body conformation </li></u...
Feed resources <ul><li>Communal pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Browses </li></ul><ul><li>Supple...
Seasonal availability of feeds
Interventions to feed shortage problems <ul><li>Conservation & proper utilization of feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing herd...
Animal health <ul><li>Major diseases: Tryps ,  anthrax ,  black leg ,   </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence: seasonal </li></ul><...
Livestock marketing <ul><li>Species of preference: Chicken > Shoats > Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Reason of sale:incidental e...
Problem ran ki ng (pa i r-wise) 3 Market 4 Credit 2 Disease 1 Feed  Ran k  Constraints
V I .  Community-based interventions
Community-based interventions <ul><li>Deciding livestock asset function requiring improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Delineatin...
Commodity of choice <ul><li>In all three PAs: cattle fattening/ finishing </li></ul>
Roles & responsibilities Advise type of animals to be fattened Training on feeding ,  healthcare etc Facilitate smooth mar...
Issues to consider for the success of the interventions <ul><li>Allocating revolving fund (to benefit the poorest of the p...
Encountered constraints <ul><li>Shortage of fund in some budget categories </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible budget release ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ILRI-BMZ Project on Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources: Country report Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005

1,035 views

Published on

Presented by Lemma Gizachew at the Second Annual Review and Planning Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-17 September 2005.

ILRI-BMZ Project on 'Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources'

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,035
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ILRI-BMZ Project on Improving the Livelihoods of Poor Livestock-keepers in Africa through Community-Based Management of Indigenous Farm Animal Genetic Resources: Country report Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005

  1. 1. ILRI-BMZ project country report/Ethiopia: Oct 2004-Sept 2005 Lemma Gizachew Second Annual Review and Planning Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 13-17 September 2005
  2. 2. Project team members <ul><li>Lemma Gizachew (NPO) </li></ul><ul><li>Ulfina Gelmessa (SNR) </li></ul><ul><li>Zelalem Belayneh </li></ul><ul><li>Jiregna Desalegn </li></ul><ul><li>Gemechu Shale </li></ul><ul><li>Temesgen Ayana </li></ul><ul><li>Temesgen Jembere </li></ul><ul><li>Diriba Geleti </li></ul><ul><li>Chala Merera </li></ul><ul><li>Gemeda Duguma </li></ul><ul><li>Mulugeta K ebede </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. AnGR: Country context
  4. 4. Animal/plant genetic resources of Ethiopia <ul><li>AnGR is vital biodiversity component </li></ul><ul><li>Center of origin/diversity for a number plant & animal (breeds) species </li></ul><ul><li>6400 plant species (1000 spp. indigenous) </li></ul><ul><li>At least 2 8 Trifolium spp. (9 endemic) </li></ul><ul><li>24 cattle breed (type) </li></ul><ul><li>13 goat </li></ul><ul><li>7 sheep </li></ul><ul><li>10 chicken </li></ul>
  5. 5. Contributing factors for richness in biodiversity <ul><li>Diverse ecological niches (32 AEZs) or habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Varying breeding goals & priorities of farmers/pastoralists </li></ul>
  6. 6. Is this country benefiting from this rich AnGR? No
  7. 7. Why ? <ul><li>Attitudinal problem (mind set up) </li></ul><ul><li>Low R and D attention on indigenous AnGR </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate institutional & policy support </li></ul>
  8. 8. Outstanding threats to indigenous AnGR <ul><li>Breed replacement , crossbreeding , interbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss (emergence of private farms , crop/bush encroachment , range degradation) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts/raids </li></ul><ul><li>Drought/famine </li></ul>
  9. 9. What does the future hold for AnGR? <ul><li>Appreciation of contribution: poverty reduction , improving livelihood & agric sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Local & international attention shift for AnGR (country report on AnGR/ collaborations) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphases of regional/national research strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in specific genetic merits of AnGR (hardiness , disease/parasite resistance) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing market demand (local & overseas) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three years ILRI-BMZ project outputs <ul><li>Community & priority breed identification </li></ul><ul><li>Community based action research </li></ul><ul><li>Analyses of economic , market & policy factors </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building & dissemination </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2004/05 plan & accomplishment ? Livestock characterization  PRA survey/reporting back workshop  Community & priority breed identification ?  PIC  Development of livelihood indicators  Enumerator training  Collect/review secondary data Accomplishment Planned activities
  12. 12. 2004/05 plan & accomplishment cont’d ? Survey instrument design & sample selection Accomplishment Planned act i v i t i es  Workshops  Capacity building ( PRA , farmer field school , graduate fellowships) ? Collection and analysis of market secondary data ? Community-based interventions
  13. 13. II. Community & priority breed identification
  14. 14. Community & priority breed identification <ul><li>Consultation worship (relevant stakeholders) </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Output: Three PAs (Gida-Abu , Dano-Shenen & Sayo-Gambela) and cattle (Horro breed) </li></ul>
  15. 15. III. Capacity building
  16. 16. Capacity building <ul><li>PRA for research team </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers field school training for trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Breed characterization from prod n systems context </li></ul><ul><li>PhD student placement/coursework ( Göttingen) </li></ul><ul><li>Placing graduate students on project outputs related activities </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerator training </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers training (forage production/health) </li></ul>
  17. 17. IV. Literature review on Horro cattle
  18. 18. Collection & compilation of information <ul><li>Publications in center and national libraries consulted </li></ul><ul><li>Report compiled through desk review </li></ul>
  19. 19. Origin & distribution <ul><li>Name derived from sub province Horro Guduru </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed through Wellega , Illubabor , Kefa & W.Shoa </li></ul>
  20. 20. Breed characteristics <ul><li>Intermediate Sanga (medium to large) </li></ul><ul><li>Small & finely shaped head </li></ul><ul><li>Medium to large horn </li></ul><ul><li>Fine skin , uniform brown color </li></ul><ul><li>Thin dewlap </li></ul><ul><li>Straight & slender leg </li></ul><ul><li>Small udder </li></ul>
  21. 21. Productive performance <ul><li>Milk yield of pure Horro: 0.4-6 l/day </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation length: 4-12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Milk yield of Horro crosses (25-50% exotic blood): </li></ul><ul><li>8 00-1400 l/lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Milk chemical composition (6.4% fat & 3.9 % protein) </li></ul><ul><li>Birth weight:1 8 .6 ± 0.2 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Weaning weight:192.4 ± 6 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Calf management (suckling) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth & finishing (concentrate/crop- residue/ forage) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reproductive performance <ul><li>Age at 1 st mating (heifer): 2.73-4.30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Age at 1 st calving: 3.5-5.0 years </li></ul><ul><li>Weight at 1 st heat:214 ± 7 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Weight at 1 st conception:215 ± 8 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation length: 2 8 0.7- 2 8 2.2 days </li></ul><ul><li>NSC: natural - 1.4; AI - 1.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Calving interval: 14.5-24.0 months </li></ul>
  23. 23. Gaps <ul><li>Characterization work incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>No emphases on improvement thru selection </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism to regulate uncontrolled cross-breeding/ interbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of community based AnGR management </li></ul><ul><li>Limited work on consumer preferences , power output improvement , market & policy </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of end-users involvement/limited adoption of developed technologies </li></ul>
  24. 24. V. Livestock production & marketing system appraisal (PRA)
  25. 25. Major objectives <ul><li>Adequately describe the project study sites </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major roles livestock play in the lives of the farming communities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify constraints and possible interventions for improvement of livestock production & marketing systems </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methodology <ul><li>Participatory situation analyses </li></ul>
  27. 27. Source of info <ul><li>Secondary data (Agric Dev’t /PA offices) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct observation by multidisciplinary team </li></ul><ul><li>Key informant interview </li></ul>
  28. 28. Data analyses <ul><li>Use of PRA tools (triangulation , conceptualization , tabulation , etc) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Findings
  30. 30. Household size & structure <ul><li>HH size:4-16 </li></ul><ul><li>HH structure:Young> old </li></ul>
  31. 31. Household wealth class  3 Poor 4-9 Medium >10 Rich Heads of cattle Wealth class
  32. 32. Percent wealth class in selected PA/ implication? / 39 5 8 3 Seyo-Gambela 26 33 41 Dano-Shenen 6 25 67 Gida-Abu Rich Medium Poor PA
  33. 33. Land use pattern from community resource map/ focus of feed intervention? / 5.67 6.7 64.3 23.5 Average 4 7 67 22 Sayo-Gambella 4 9 65 22 Danno-Shanan 9 4 61 26 Gida-Abu Waste Forest Crop Grazing PA
  34. 34. Rainfall pattern
  35. 35. HH food availability/ coping strategies? /
  36. 36. Relative contribution of different livestock spp.
  37. 37. Relative monetary return from livestock products
  38. 38. HH expenditure / negligible for livestock /
  39. 39. Sources of credit & relative importance 4 Arata 3 Idir 2 Neighbor 1 Relatives Relative importance Source
  40. 40. Labor calendar / alternative use of labor at slack period? /
  41. 41. Purpose of keeping livestock <ul><li>Sources of incidental expense </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of food </li></ul><ul><li>Financial reserve during economic stress </li></ul><ul><li>Input to crop production </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth accumulation & security </li></ul><ul><li>Buffering against crop failure </li></ul>
  42. 42. Preferred cattle traits <ul><li>Coat color (disease/flies/ feeding response) </li></ul><ul><li>Body conformation </li></ul><ul><li>Body size (growth rate & prolificacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Naval flap & tail size </li></ul><ul><li>Size & orientation of horn </li></ul>
  43. 43. Feed resources <ul><li>Communal pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Browses </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements (salt) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Seasonal availability of feeds
  45. 45. Interventions to feed shortage problems <ul><li>Conservation & proper utilization of feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing herd size </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization of communal grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Paddocking & rotational grazing of NP </li></ul><ul><li>Use of shrubs & browses </li></ul><ul><li>Growing improved forages </li></ul>
  46. 46. Animal health <ul><li>Major diseases: Tryps , anthrax , black leg , </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence: seasonal </li></ul><ul><li>Most affected class: oxen/milking cows </li></ul>
  47. 47. Livestock marketing <ul><li>Species of preference: Chicken > Shoats > Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Reason of sale:incidental expenses , school fee & credit repayment </li></ul><ul><li>Market channel:farmer ⇨ small traders/ butchers (1 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (2 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (3 ° market) ⇨ b i g traders (terminal market) </li></ul><ul><li>Market info: informal (physical presence/ neighbor </li></ul><ul><li>Price formation: Socio-cultural events , crop performance , season (oxen) , body feature (color) , brokers </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints: infrastructure , info , volume , capital , transport </li></ul>
  48. 48. Problem ran ki ng (pa i r-wise) 3 Market 4 Credit 2 Disease 1 Feed Ran k Constraints
  49. 49. V I . Community-based interventions
  50. 50. Community-based interventions <ul><li>Deciding livestock asset function requiring improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Delineating roles & responsibilities of the project and the communities </li></ul>
  51. 51. Commodity of choice <ul><li>In all three PAs: cattle fattening/ finishing </li></ul>
  52. 52. Roles & responsibilities Advise type of animals to be fattened Training on feeding , healthcare etc Facilitate smooth marketing of animal Monitor operation Avail drugs on cost bases BMZ-project Avail animals for fattening Conserve feed Manage feeds & animals Bear input costs Communities Duties and responsible Role players
  53. 53. Issues to consider for the success of the interventions <ul><li>Allocating revolving fund (to benefit the poorest of the poor) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance the capacity of the research system (resources)-for smooth take-off & sustain the effort </li></ul>
  54. 54. Encountered constraints <ul><li>Shortage of fund in some budget categories </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible budget release mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of revolving fund (facilitate community based intervention) </li></ul>

×