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Formal and Informal Governance: Powerful Policy Option 
for Harnessing Synergies to Secure Livestock Systems & 
Environmen...
Presentation Outline 
• Introduction 
• Quote & Objectives of The Presentation 
• Consequences of Changes in Pastoral Live...
Quote 
"Development will bring food security only 
-if it is people-centred, 
-if it is environmentally sound, 
-if it is ...
Objectives of this presentation 
• To share experiences/lessons learnt accrued 
from integration of formal and informal 
m...
Consequences of Changing Livestock System and Environment in Northern Kenya 
5
Key Facts – Marsabit County 
Area: 70,961 sq. km (about 11.2% of the total 
landmass of Kenya) 
Livestock Pop: Cattle (424...
Pastoralism & Nomadic pastoralism 
Pastoralism 
• Pastoralism refers to a livelihood approach that 
makes use of domestica...
Pastoralism & Nomadic pastoralism Cont’d 
Nomadic pastoralism 
• A model of production where over 80 
percent of household...
Why pastoralism is so important 
• Pastoralism systems provides valuable ecosystem 
services, namely:- 
– Maintains high l...
Why pastoralism is so important 
• Pastoralism systems provides valuable ecosystem 
services 
– Maintains high levels of b...
Pastoral livestock production systems Classification 
• Pastoral livestock production systems 
– Falls under Solely Livest...
System and Livestock Production System (LPS) 
• LPS is considered to be a subset of farming 
systems 
• Systems - regularl...
System and Livestock Production System (LPS) 
• Need to understand (Human influences –My 
Own insertion-) on how the anima...
Formal Rules & Structures in pastoral livestock system 
management 
• Provincial 
administrators - chiefs 
and assistant c...
Formal Rules & Structures In Pastoral Livestock System 
Management 
• Laisamis Location 
chief in a land 
use/grazing 
man...
Informal Rules & Structures In Pastoral Livestock System 
Management 
• Indigenous justice 
systems are based on 
a holist...
Traditional 
Management 
Set Up in 
Borana 
17
Harnessing Synergy 
Synergy 
• According to Evans (1996), the term synergy refers to the 
developmental multiplier effects...
19
Harnessed Synergy Cont’d 
Harnessed energy gives resilience to 
Pastoralists to a confront: 
Four Types Uncertainties 
• E...
Policy and Legislation needs 
• Livestock production and marketing 
• Animal health Care delivery System 
• Disease Contro...
Policy and Legislation Priorities 
• Meat Control and Hygiene 
• Branding of livestock products – Niche Markets 
• Promoti...
Research Opportunities 
• Counties are willing and have some resources to pilot 
innovations in:- 
– Climate smart technol...
Acknowledgement 
• USAID Kenya Resilience and Economic growth in the Arid 
Lands – Accelerated Growth (REGAL-AG) 
• Intern...
References 
• County Integrated Development Program 
Marsabit,, 2013) 
• Mehta, L., Leach, M., Newell, P., Scoones, I., 
S...
References Cont’d 
• Peter Evans (1996): Social Capital - Conceptual 
Frameworks and Empirical Evidence - An Annotated 
Bi...
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Formal and informal governance: Powerful policy option for harnessing synergies to secure livestock systems and environment in Marsabit, northern Kenya

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Presented by George J. Wamwere-Njoroge at the Livestock Systems and Environment (LSE) Seminar, ILRI, Nairobi, 28 August 2014

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Formal and informal governance: Powerful policy option for harnessing synergies to secure livestock systems and environment in Marsabit, northern Kenya

  1. 1. Formal and Informal Governance: Powerful Policy Option for Harnessing Synergies to Secure Livestock Systems & Environment in Marsabit, Northern Kenya by Dr. George J. Wamwere-Njoroge, BVM, MSc, MA Pastoral Policy Advisor – USAID Kenya Resilience and Economic Growth in the Arid Lands – Accelerated Growth (REGAL-AG) E-Mail: g.njoroge@regal-ag.org, gwjnjoroge@yahoo.com, wamwere.njoroge@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Introduction • Quote & Objectives of The Presentation • Consequences of Changes in Pastoral Livestock Systems & Environment in Northern Kenya • Experiences/Lessons Learnt thro’ Formal and Informal Management Structures of Pastoral Livestock Systems And Environment • Leverage on Emerging Policy/Legislative Opportunities • Research Opportunities and Way Forward 2
  3. 3. Quote "Development will bring food security only -if it is people-centred, -if it is environmentally sound, -if it is participatory, and -if it builds local and national capacity for self-reliance. These are the basic characteristics of sustainable human development." - James Gustave Speltz (UNDP, 1994) 3
  4. 4. Objectives of this presentation • To share experiences/lessons learnt accrued from integration of formal and informal management structures of livestock systems and environment in Marsabit, Northern Kenya • To enumerate the emerging innovative policy & legislative options created by the devolution structures, especially the county Assembly • To highlight possible cutting-edge research opportunities 4
  5. 5. Consequences of Changing Livestock System and Environment in Northern Kenya 5
  6. 6. Key Facts – Marsabit County Area: 70,961 sq. km (about 11.2% of the total landmass of Kenya) Livestock Pop: Cattle (424,603), Sheep (960,004), Goats (1,143,480), and Camels (203,320), donkeys 63,861 & Poultry 50,690. Livelihoods: All Pastoral Livelihood Zone (81%), Agro-pastoral Livelihood Zone (16%), Others (4%) - formal employment, casual waged labour, petty trade and fishing along Lake Turkana (3%) Political: 4 Constituencies - Moyale, North horr, Saku and Laisamis Human Pop: Projected population: 316,200 - 2012 (164,100 males and 152,100 females) Annual growth rate: 2.75 percent Note: Approximately 80% landmass - arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs ) (Marsabit, CIDP, 2013) & Republic of Kenya, Human Population and Housing Census (2009) 6
  7. 7. Pastoralism & Nomadic pastoralism Pastoralism • Pastoralism refers to a livelihood approach that makes use of domesticated animals - for example, sheep, goats, cattle, camels - to provide a variety of products such as milk, skins, cash and occasionally and meat • It is also defined as a model of production where livestock makes up to 50 percent or more of economic portfolio of a pastoral household (UNEP & IUCN, 2013) 7
  8. 8. Pastoralism & Nomadic pastoralism Cont’d Nomadic pastoralism • A model of production where over 80 percent of household income is generated through regular movement of livestock across a well-defined wet and dry season grazing areas (UNEP & IUCN, 2013) 8
  9. 9. Why pastoralism is so important • Pastoralism systems provides valuable ecosystem services, namely:- – Maintains high levels of biodiversity, increase vegetation soil cover, reduce erosion, prevents wildfires, maintains infrastructures, disperse seeds, allocate nutrients, defragmenting landscapes, etc. • Pastoralism produces necessary goods (meat, dairy, leather, manure…), extracted sustainably from low productive ecosystems • Pastoral culture constitutes a highly valuable cultural and intangible living heritage (IFAD, 2009) 9
  10. 10. Why pastoralism is so important • Pastoralism systems provides valuable ecosystem services – Maintains high levels of biodiversity, increase vegetation soil cover, reduce erosion, prevents wildfires, maintains infrastructures, disperse seeds, allocate nutrients, defragmenting landscapes, etc. • Pastoralism produces necessary goods (meat, dairy, leather, manure…), extracted sustainably from low productive ecosystems • Pastoral culture constitutes a highly valuable cultural and intangible living heritage (IFAD, 2009) 10
  11. 11. Pastoral livestock production systems Classification • Pastoral livestock production systems – Falls under Solely Livestock Systems (SLS) which is a livestock systems in which – More than 90% of dry matter fed to animals comes from rangelands, pastures, annual forages and purchased feeds (very rare in normal conds – my own insertion) and – Less than 10% of the total value of production comes from non-livestock farming activities (Sere´ and Steinfeld,1996) 11
  12. 12. System and Livestock Production System (LPS) • LPS is considered to be a subset of farming systems • Systems - regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole • Forage-livestock systems - productive groupings that consider and utilize animals, plants, and soil characteristics within an environmental perspective (Oregon State University, 2008) 12
  13. 13. System and Livestock Production System (LPS) • Need to understand (Human influences –My Own insertion-) on how the animals interact with the plants growing in soil • Proper management of the plant-animal-soil continuum (by Human –My Own insertion-) will improve the economics and ecology of the unified whole - Human-Livestock-Pasture Continuum (Sere´ and Steinfeld,1996) 13
  14. 14. Formal Rules & Structures in pastoral livestock system management • Provincial administrators - chiefs and assistant chiefs • • National Government 14 COUNTY COMMISSIONER SUB-COUNTY COMMISSIONER CHIEF ASSISTANT CHIEF VILLAGE ELDER
  15. 15. Formal Rules & Structures In Pastoral Livestock System Management • Laisamis Location chief in a land use/grazing management seminar 15
  16. 16. Informal Rules & Structures In Pastoral Livestock System Management • Indigenous justice systems are based on a holistic philosophy. Law is a way of life and justice is a part of life process. (Ada Pecos Melton, 1995) Photo: Borana Elder in traditional regalia 16
  17. 17. Traditional Management Set Up in Borana 17
  18. 18. Harnessing Synergy Synergy • According to Evans (1996), the term synergy refers to the developmental multiplier effects of collaboration between state and society, or between formal and informal arrangements • The Author stipulated that synergy requires a combination of complementarity and embeddedness between state (formal – my insertion) and society (informal – my insertion) • Both complementary capacities & relations of trust and mutual interest must coincide in order to produce the mutual gains associated with synergy 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Harnessed Synergy Cont’d Harnessed energy gives resilience to Pastoralists to a confront: Four Types Uncertainties • Ecological uncertainties • Livelihood uncertainties • Knowledge uncertainties • Social and political uncertainties (Mehta et al.1999) 20
  21. 21. Policy and Legislation needs • Livestock production and marketing • Animal health Care delivery System • Disease Control and Prevention • Livestock movement • Branding and Traceability of livestock • Farm-to-Fork Concept 21
  22. 22. Policy and Legislation Priorities • Meat Control and Hygiene • Branding of livestock products – Niche Markets • Promotion of public-private-partnership (PPP) • Organic livestock production • Livestock System and Grazing management 22
  23. 23. Research Opportunities • Counties are willing and have some resources to pilot innovations in:- – Climate smart technologies – Improved breeds – Product development/Abattoir development – Branding • Many counties Kajiado, Marsabit etc. – proposing establishment of abattoirs – Disease control and livestock movement – e.g. Digital pen • Upscale and/or Outscale Community conservancy model, to integrate livestock marketing/business enterprises 23
  24. 24. Acknowledgement • USAID Kenya Resilience and Economic growth in the Arid Lands – Accelerated Growth (REGAL-AG) • International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) 24
  25. 25. References • County Integrated Development Program Marsabit,, 2013) • Mehta, L., Leach, M., Newell, P., Scoones, I., Silvaramakrishnana, K., AND Sally-Ann Way (1999) • Melton, Ada Pecos (1995). Indigenous justice systems and tribal society Judicature 79 (December). Reprinted online by Tribal Court Clearinghouse. 25
  26. 26. References Cont’d • Peter Evans (1996): Social Capital - Conceptual Frameworks and Empirical Evidence - An Annotated Bibliography, Tine Rossing Feldman and Susan Assaf. Social Development Family - Environmentally and Socially. Sustainable Development Network. • Republic of Kenya (2009) - Human Population and Housing Census • Steinfeld, H and J. Mäki-Hokkonen (2013): Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Rome, Italy. 26

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