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Livestock feed supply and demand in Ethiopia

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Presented by Aklilu Mekasha and Mesfin Dejene (Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research) at the Workshop on Identifying Investment Opportunities for Livestock Feed Resources Development in the Eastern Africa Sub-Region, ILRI Addis, 13-15 December 2017

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Livestock feed supply and demand in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Livestock feed supply and demand in Ethiopia By Aklilu Mekasha Mesfin Dejene Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research 13-15 December 2017 ILRI, Addis Ababa
  2. 2. Doc ID 1 Introduction  Location • 9° 0' 19.4436''N and 38° 45' 48.9996'' E • Area 1.104 million sq km  Topography • 40% highland / > 1500 m asl • 60% lowland/ < 1500 m asl • arid (64%), semiarid(21%), sub humid (15%)  Political administration • 9 regions & two cities  Human population • 100 million • Grow @ 2.89%
  3. 3. Doc ID 2 1. On feed supply–demand
  4. 4. Doc ID 3 Feed supply-demand…. Major sources of feeds  Grazing on natural pasture  Crop residues  Agro industrial by products  Cultivated forages  availability and relative contributions vary across eco- environments
  5. 5. Doc ID 4 Availability & percentage contribution of different feeds Feed type Afar BG DD. Gam Oro. SSNP Somali Tiyo* Natural pasture 10-100 - 76 85-98 31-84 90-99 90-100 14 Fallow 0-3 - 5 0-5 - - 0-1 2 Aftermath grazing 3-65 - 4 - - 1-5 0-10 16 Crop residue 1-25 - 7 1-10 9-38 5 0-10 48+ 8 AIBP 0-1 - 5 - 1 - - 11 Improved forages 0-5 3 0-1 0-1 - - 1 Source; MoA & RD, 2004; Mekasha , 2014 & 2017 * District from highland areas, Oromia region
  6. 6. Doc ID 5 Feed supply and demand balance Region Livestock (TLU) DM production (ton) DM demand (ton) Balance (ton) Afar* 621,455 1, 057,805 1,416,900 - 359,095 B Gumuz 10,124.9 698,682 23,100 + 675,582 D. Dawa 39,143 50,482 263,300 - 258,218 Gambela 288,922.3 1,497,165 658,800 + 838,365 Oromia 4, 995, 582 7,918,290 11, 390,000 - 3, 371, 710 SSNP 693, 463.3 1,738,170 1, 581,000 + 157,170 Amhara* 9,500,000 18,000000 21,700,000 - 3,700,000 Somali* 2,533,363 17, 882, 909 5,776,000 + 12,106,909 Source; MoA & RD, 2004; Tegegne and Asefa, 2010 * whole region
  7. 7. Doc ID 6 How information was drived? Source of information • for the livestock population • Availability of feeds • Quantity of feeds  CSA, annual and censes reports  household survey  field observation and sampling
  8. 8. Doc ID 7 Relibability of the data/ information How reliable are the estimates ? • Big questions ? No one is sure, but could be indicative Where are the gaps? • not exhaustive sampling • great spatial and temporal variability • diverse feed resource bases • Dynamic changes over time Are they adequate to inform current intervention and future demand? • not adequate but could help
  9. 9. Doc ID 8 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2. Feed interventions 𝑌𝑖 = 𝑤1𝑠𝑖1 + 𝑤2𝑠𝑖2 + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑤𝑗𝑠𝑖𝑗𝑖 𝑛 𝑗=1𝑌𝑖 = 𝑤1𝑠𝑖1 + 𝑤2𝑠𝑖2 + ⋯ + 𝑤𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑛 = 𝑤𝑗𝑠𝑖𝑗𝑖 𝑛 𝑗=1
  10. 10. Doc ID 9 2. Feed interventions…. To bridge the gap in feed supply and demand A. Traditional/ farmers & pastoralists interventions to over come seasonal and spatial feed deficits . Percent contribution of different strategies Strategies Liben (Pasto ral) Mieso (Agro- P) Tiyo (Crop- Livs) Remark Mobility ( nomadism) 25.2 12 0.1 Declining – shortage of landTranshumance 10.4 15.6 0.2 Feed conservation 17.2 64.5 72.8 increasing Herd management ( De/Re socking 18.6 0.9 6.5 Purchase of feeds 1.5 7.5 13.6 other 28.8 0.5 6.8 Source; Mekasha et al, 2014
  11. 11. Doc ID 10 2. Feed interventions…. B. Research and development interventions  Improved forage crops cultivation • very limited adoption and lack of perpetuation  0.01% (Tefera et al., 2010), 10% (Agaje et al, 2017)  shortage of land, lack of awareness, lack of experience, not market oriented / no or less incentive  Enhanced use of locally available feed resources  Use of agro industrial by products/ ingredients  high rate of sustained adoption  limited availability and high price  only available in urban areas and in rural areas close to urban areas  Use of commercial concentrate mixtures  Moderate adoption in commercial farms  limited availability and high price  only available in urban areas and in rural areas close to urban areas  quality issues
  12. 12. Doc ID 11 3. Tools/ Approaches for feed interventions
  13. 13. Doc ID 12  Tools/ Approaches currently used for shaping feed interventions include: • small plot on farm and on station demonstrations • farmers’ field days • popularization/ scaling out  What additional tools/ approaches to use ?  market oriented technology generation, demonstration and popularization  Linking areas of surplus feed production and demand / infrastructure  Availing feed processing equipment 3. Tools/ Approaches for feed interventions ……
  14. 14. Doc ID 13 Thank you so much

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