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Human and veterinary approaches to vaccination monitoring: What can foot-and-mouth disease learn from measles?

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Presentation by Theo Knight-Jones, David Paton, Giancarlo Ferrari, Mark Rweyemamu and Keith Sumption at the 37th Tanzania Veterinary Association conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 27–29 November 2019.

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Human and veterinary approaches to vaccination monitoring: What can foot-and-mouth disease learn from measles?

  1. 1. Human and veterinary approaches to vaccination monitoring: What can foot-and-mouth disease learn from measles? Theo Knight-Jones, David Paton, Giancarlo Ferrari, Mark Rweyemamu and Keith Sumption 37th Tanzanian Veterinary Association conference Arusha, Tanzania 27–29 November 2019
  2. 2. • Evaluation of FMD vaccines traditionally based on: 1. Challenge studies • Control conditions • Small numbers and may not represent natural challenge 2. Serological evaluation – Vaccine matching tests • Useful but imprecise test – Post vaccination antibody response • Useful but sero-positivity may not reflect protection from disease Traditional methods of FMD vaccine evaluation
  3. 3. Need to consider Cold chain Shelf life Batch variability Variable animal response Match with field virus Time since last vaccinated Number of doses in lifetime Level/duration of virus exposure Start with a good vaccine Field protection is the ultimate outcome Make sure animal is vaccinated according to schedule
  4. 4. • Failure to vaccinate or a vaccine failure? Concerned about outbreaks in vaccinated population 1. Are vaccinated animals protected from FMD? Vaccine effectiveness 2. Are the animals being vaccinated (adequately)? Vaccine coverage
  5. 5. Vaccine effectiveness After an outbreak: Compare incidence in vaccinated and unvaccinated Vaccinated versus Unvaccinated
  6. 6. Human Vacccine effectiveness studies
  7. 7. Vaccine coverage India: age-specific vaccine coverage Data from coverage surveys measlesDTP1 DTP2 DTP3
  8. 8. Vaccinated Spring+Autumn 2012 Vaccinated Autumn 2011+ Spring+Autumn 2012 Protection threshold once twice 3 times 2.3 2.4 2 0 Log10 (SP titre) Autumn mass vaccination Vaccinated Autumn 2012 FMD Post-vaccination immunity
  9. 9. 9 FMD Post-vaccination immunity Protection threshold 2.3 2.4 2 0 Log10 (SP titre) Autumn mass vaccination • Batch monitoring • Population immunity – national/zonal survey to reflect expected protection • Monitor change in immunity with time since vaccination/number of doses
  10. 10. Need to consider Cold chain Shelf life Batch variability Variable animal response Match with field virus Time since last vaccinated Number of doses in lifetime Level/duration of virus exposure Start with a good vaccine If disease control is to work everyone must do there bit Make sure animal is vaccinated according to schedule
  11. 11. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations which globally support its work through their contributions to the CGIAR Trust Fund

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