Goat milk safety and consumption in Abergelle, Ethiopia

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Presented by Sarah Warren, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) - World Food Prize intern, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, August 2013.

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Goat milk safety and consumption in Abergelle, Ethiopia

  1. 1. Goat milk safety and consumption in Abergelle, Ethiopia Sarah Warren International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) – World Food Prize intern Addis Ababa, Ethiopia August 2013
  2. 2. OUTLINE Personal Background  Food Safety in the Sheep and Goat Value Chain Project  Introduction to my Project  Methods  Results  Acknowledgements 
  3. 3. PERSONAL BACKGROUND  Nicholasville, Kentucky, USA
  4. 4. FOOD SAFETY IN SHEEP AND GOAT VALUE CHAIN Food Safety and Zoonoses, “Safe Food Fair Food”  Roles in the process of the value chain, from production to market and consumption  Diseases and their effect on production 
  5. 5. MY PROJECT: GOAT MILK SAFETY AND CONSUMPTION IN ABERGELLE Wanted to test perceptions and realities on goat milk production and consumption in Abergelle  Test the milk to see what is actually in it, compare to perceptions 
  6. 6. METHODS 2 villages (Zaquala and Tanqua)  11 questionnaires  2 enumerators  Open ended, multiple choice questions
  7. 7. ZAQUALA ABERGELLE VILLAGES TANQUA
  8. 8. ZAQUALA – TESFAY GLINORIAN ENUMERATORS TANQUA – HAILAI HAGUS
  9. 9. METHODS – GOAT MILK SAMPLES Collected 19 samples  Processed them at Holetta Agricultural Research Center in the Dairy Lab  Microbial Analysis and Chemical Constituent Analysis 
  10. 10. METHODS - MICROBIAL ANALYSIS 15 samples were tested in this analysis  Serial Dilution with Pepton water  Plate Count agar, incubate for 24 hours  Mark colonies, count bacterial colonies and contaminations 
  11. 11. METHODS – MICROBIAL ANALYSIS: SERIAL DILUTION
  12. 12. METHODS - CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ANALYSIS 8 samples, combined based on herd  Water:Milk ratio accounted for to fill the tubes  Analyzed: Fat, Lactose, Protein, and Total Solids percentage content  Lactoscope 
  13. 13. LACTOSCOPE Cleaning the Lactoscope Milk Analysis
  14. 14. RESULTS - QUESTIONNAIRES Generally, goat milk was believed to be safe, healthy, and important.  Milk and goats are susceptible to disease, so villagers take precautions.  Women not allowed to drink goat milk.  Production and consumption levels vary with season. 
  15. 15. RESULTS - QUESTIONNAIRE Goat Milk Collection Store in smoked container, in a cool place Churn, Separate Ferment Butter Milk -Use (cooking, cosmetics) - Sell at market Boil, Separate Drink Skim Milk Boil Whey, Soft Cheese Yogurt Whole Milk Drink Other Info: - Sometimes villagers prepare a dish called “tagamino” to which they add yogurt - Prepare a traditional cheese, called “agip”
  16. 16. RESULTS – QUESTIONNAIRES: WEBA TREE Thought to have medicinal properties, the leaves of these trees would be smoked into the milk container prior to milk storage, lining the pot with the residue.
  17. 17. RESULTS – QUESTIONNAIRES: WEBA TREE
  18. 18. RESULTS – QUESTIONNAIRE: PROCESSING AND STORAGE Raw Milk Storage (above) Butter Storage > Churning milk by suspending container by strap and agitating (above)
  19. 19. <- Milk collection pot Storage containers with “lids” (below) <- Child’s milk drinking cup
  20. 20. RESULTS – MICROBIAL ANALYSIS The colonies were counted at the highest dilution  Ranged from 5-106 colonies 
  21. 21. RESULTS – CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Sample Total Solid Protein % Lactose % % Fat % Z31, Z32, Z33 3.52 5.97 2.35 11.84 T11, T12, T13 14.71 9.06 5.14 28.94 Z11, Z12, Z13 9.65 6.27 4.74 20.66 Z21, Z22 15.24 8.48 5.6 29.32 Z41, Z42 19.18 9.5 6.54 35.23 A21, A22 16.07 6.63 4.73 27.42 A11 10.87 6.31 3.31 20.28 T21, T22 16.65 9.1 5.93 31.69 3.5 3.1 4.6 12 Average for goat milk Found higher contents than the average for goat milk, maybe due to first milk
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONS Women need to drink milk (break taboo, education?)  Test vaccines from Woreda Ag Center  Milk seems to be healthy enough, though a large number of bacteria was found in some samples, suggesting there is possibility of disease 
  23. 23. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – THANK YOU!! Dr. Tadelle, Grum, “Team Mike,” and the whole Biotech department  Holetta Dairy Research Center  Respondents in the Abergelle village  My Ethiopian mom, Tigist  Barbara Szonyi, the best advisor ever 
  24. 24. BARBARA AND TIGIST!

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