For the last one a half years, an informal gender task force has been developing a gender strategy for the institute. This strategy has been shared with staff, with the management committee, the research management committee and has also been presented to the Board of Trustees. It has benefited from inputs from these teams It is a very unique day to be presenting this strategy as it befits the theme of the day—empower rural women-end poverty and hunger I am privileged this afternoon to be able to present this strategy to you, and as many of you are aware, this will be my last institutional role as a leader of the gender research at ILRI. I will be counting on you to keep the passion for having impact on rural women and men burning in ILRI
First to start with 2 basic definitions so that we are all on the same page
I would like to give you a glimpse of some of the key gender issues in agriculture development that we have to address, and address very urgently if we are to end hunger and poverty in the areas where we work…
We can not afford to ignore women…
Despite this, we see gender disparities in several areas: I will just highlight a few.. Access to extension services –Female farmers receive only 5% of all agricultural extension and only 15% of women extension agents are women, despite evidence that women extension workers are more likely to reach women Only 10% of total aid for agriculture, forestry and fishing is going to women
As a result of these disparities: There is a 20-30% yield gap between men and women farmers –This is not due to the fact that women are less effient. It is a result of resource differences. If women were to access the same resources as men have, we would close this yield gap and raise agricultural output by 2.5 to 4% This increase in output, would feed an additional 100-150M—That is we would have 100-150M less hungry people in the world
This and increasing income and resources under women, would also have profound effects on other poverty indicators An increase to a woman’s income of USD 10 achieves the same nutrition and health for the family as increase to a man’s income of USD 110 Increasing access to markets and the income under the management of women has to be a key priority
Livestock is an important asset for rural households and for women. In studies we have conducted in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, despite low ownership of livestock by women (9% of ownership of cattle in Kenya, 6% in Tanzania), livestock comprises up to 60% of women’s assets… Women are important for livestock, providing labour to livestock production in different systems Yet as in agriculture, they face numerous constraints: Lower access to markets, access to improved technologies, low ownership of livestock assets..constraints that ILRI should focus on and can have an impact on.
We have made progress in ILRI
So to our gender strategy….why ? To have a systematic approach to integrating gender in our work in ILRI To define a role for ILRI in promoting gender equality in the livestock subsector—Its not just about ILRI itself but what role it plays with partners
4 leverage points that I believe are critical—More leverage points will continue to be identified…
We have to systematically integrate gender into our work An important framework is gender in the project cyel
Strategy and plan of action for mainstreaming gender in ILRI
Jemimah NjukiInternational Women’s Day, ILRI, Nairobi, 8 March 2012
Gender: Refers to the socially Gender Mainstreaming: Is a constructed roles and status strategy for making of women and men, girls and womens, as well as mens, boys. It is a set of culturally concerns and experiences specific characteristics an integral dimension in the defining the social behaviour design, implementation, of women and men, boys monitoring and evaluation and girls, and the of policies and programmes relationships between them. in all political, economic and social spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.
F e m a le S h a r e o f t h e A g r ic u lt u r a l L a b o u r F o r c eWomen, on average, comprise 43% of the agricultural labour force in developingcountries and account for an estimated two-thirds of the worlds 600 million poorlivestock keepers. FAO and Farming First 2012
A c c e s s t o E x t e n s io nS e r v ic e sBecause of cultural attitudes,discrimination and a lack ofrecognition for their role in foodproduction, women enjoy limitedto no benefits from extensionand training in new cropvarieties and technologies. FAO and Farming First 2012
G e n d e r Yie ld G a pThe vast majority of studiessuggest that women are justas efficient as men and wouldachieve the same yields ifthey had equal access toproductive resources andservices. Bridging this genderyield gap would boost foodand nutrition security globally. FAO and Farming First 2012
A c c e s s to M a rk e tsIncreasing womens share ofhousehold income has broadbenefits to improved rurallivelihoods. Improvingtransportation and infrastructureconstraints and encouraging ruralwomens participation in farmerorganisations and cooperatives canhelp both to achieve economies ofscale in access to markets as wellas reducing isolation and buildingconfidence, leadership and security. FAO and Farming First 2012
To enable ILRI to have a systematic approach to promoting gender equality / equity at institutional and research level. To define the role that ILRI will play in stimulating and facilitating efforts, both in-house and with partners at the national, regional and global levels, to overcome constraints and take advantage of opportunities to promote gender equality and equity within the livestock sub sector It is a reflection of the increasing awareness that gender equality and equity are important prerequisites for agricultural growth and sustainable development.
Previous efforts in integrating gender in ILRI proposals—often not carried through to implementation, monitoring and evaluation Lack of clarity on where responsibility and accountability for integration of gender in projects and programs lies. Even where there is willingness to integrate gender, the practical skills and guidelines for doing so, are usually lacking—often leading to gender “paragraphs”
To increase the quality, efficiency and impacts of ILRI’s work in livestock development. To promote equality of opportunity and equity in outcomes between women and men in the livestock sub-sector at local, national, regional, and global levels. To ensure that human equality, equity and rights are respected across gender, that there is good gender representation in ILRI staffing, decision making positions and there is active and balanced participation by both women and men in ILRI’s policies and work.
Using the Project Cycle Integration of gender into projects, programs and activities should use the project cycle to ensure that gender is integrated in all key points of the project. An easy and practical way of integrating gender in projects /programmes Figure 1: The Project Cycle
Seven critical areas in which projects, programmes should integrate gender within the project cycle..
Integrating gender in ILRI’s organizationalstructure and culture
Three Key Areasi. Documenting existing evidence on livestock Review of evidence on Gender and Livestock to inform targeting and research• Systematizing collection of gender disaggregated data on productivity, value chains, livelihoods Develop key gender and livelihood indicators for use in M&E and Impact Assessment in all ILRI programs and project.v. Strategic research on gender and livestock Current priorities (based on CRPs) Gender and value chains Gender and livestock technology development Gender and assets Gender, livestock, nutrition and health Gender and climate change
Research partnerships ◦ International: IFPRI, ICRW, UN women, FAO ◦ Regional /National: ASARECA, NARS, Universities Implementation partnerships ◦ Mainly with NGOs Information dissemination and communication ◦ Electronic (blogs etc) ◦ Networks (Gender and Livestock Network, Gender and Agriculture Network) ◦ Biennial conference ◦ Online gender and agriculture journal
Objective 1: To promote Objective 2: To increase the Objective 3: To ensure thatequality of opportunity and quality, efficiency and human equality, equity andoutcomes between women impacts of ILRIs work in rights are respected acrossand men in the livestock livestock development gender, that there is goodsub-sector gender representation in ILRI staffing….A narrowing of gender The extent to which women are Integration of gender-relateddisparities in the adoption of involved in the livestock sector indicators in ILRI’s performancelivestock technologies, access to and in ILRI programs in terms of evaluation and reward systemsservices, information and inputs decision making, production, marketing, or processing is in Increased number of womenA narrowing of gender proportion to their numbers in participating in science in ILRIdisparities in outcomes the sector and partner institutions, andincluding nutrition status, asset advancing to leadershipownership, and intra-household Increased availability of sex positions (and to exceed 30%)decision making disaggregated data for decisionImproved gender equity in making in livestock for ILRI, The extent to which ILRI policiesaccess to and control of benefits other CGIAR centres and and programs are genderfrom livestock and associated partners responsiveresources and interventions Increased capacity and expertise to develop and implement gender responsive agricultural innovations, especially for smallholders by ILRI staff and partners
Should gender be a specific focus of work or canwe assume that our work will lead to equitableoutcomes for men, women and othermarginalized groups? How can we moreeffectively mainstream gender in our work? Who should have the responsibility for integratinggender in our work? How do we ensureaccountability by staff for gender outcomes fromour research and other work at ILRI?