Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania


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Presented by Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Joyce Macha, Samuel Mburu and Juliet Kariuki at the Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31st January–2nd February 2011.

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Gender and livestock value chains in Kenya and Tanzania

  1. 1. Gender and Livestock Value Chains in Kenya and Tanzania<br />Gender and Market Oriented Agriculture (AgriGender 2011) Workshop<br /> Addis Ababa, Ethiopia<br /> 31st January–2nd February 2011<br />Jemimah Njuki, Elizabeth Waithanji, Joyce Macha, Samuel Mburu, Juliet Kariuki<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Methods and Key research questions<br />Results<br />Assets, income and access to services<br />Women’s participation in livestock markets<br />Intra-household income control, decision making and expenditure<br />Further Analysis<br />
  3. 3. Why livestock?<br />Livestock, compared to other productive assets, are an important and accessible asset for women<br />Livestock production and marketing as a promising pathway out of poverty<br />Strategic focus on women can contribute to long term poverty reduction<br />
  4. 4. Key issues<br />Women’s access to livestock production resources inhibited by gender-based constraints<br />Women are involved in and may control production, but often they do not own the means of production – namely, livestock, land and water<br />Existing analyses of the role and economic contribution of women to livestock development and the key challenges they face are inconclusive<br />Inequitable gender participation in commercialised livestock markets<br />
  5. 5. Key research questions and data<br />
  6. 6. Livestock Assets, Income and Access to Services<br />
  7. 7. Household ownership of livestock-Kenya<br /> Local chickens and dairy cows were the most commonly owned livestock species<br /> Except for other cattle, male headed households owned more livestock than female <br />Significant differences in number of dairy cattle, exotic and local chicken<br />
  8. 8. Livestock Ownership<br />Tanzania<br />Kenya<br />Most of the value of TLU comes from dairy cattle (and other cattle in Tanzania)<br />TLU of male headed households much larger than female headed households<br />Despite small livestock (chicken, goats, sheep) by women and FHH, their contribution to TLU is very low<br />
  9. 9. Means of acquisition of livestock by women<br />Despite other evidence, across species, the main means of livestock acquisition by women was through purchase<br />For sheep, goats and local chicken, born into the herd was a common source for women<br />Group purchase and grants from NGOs was common for goats and bee hives<br />
  10. 10. Access to technologies and services<br />Over 50% of households saved money and over 40% of households had received credit<br />Female headed households obtained lower amounts than male headed households (14,289Ksh compared to 60, 064 Ksh)<br />Women received training and credit in less than 40% of the households, saved money in over 50% of the households in Kenya<br />In Tanzania, less than 20%, 40% and 20% of women have ever been trained on livestock, contacted and extension officer or obtained credit<br />
  11. 11. Main sources and uses of credit in Kenya<br />More women obtained credit from groups, neighbours and friends than men<br />More men than women received credit from banks, microfinance organizations and co-ops <br />Most credit was used on purchase of assets, payment of school fees, and purchase of livestock<br />
  12. 12. Women’s Participation in Livestock Markets<br />
  13. 13. Market Participation-Who sold?<br />Women participated most in the sale of chicken, eggs and milk<br />63% of chicken sales were made by women, 89.1% of the egg sales and 73.1% of the milk sales<br />Only about 10% of cattle sales and 30% of goat and sheep sales were made by women<br />
  14. 14. Where sold: Milk and Eggs<br />Women mainly sold milk and eggs at farm gate to other farmers and to traders<br />Very few women delivered to traders /or shop or to city markets<br />
  15. 15. Where sold: Chicken and Honey<br />Men mainly sold chicken at farm gate to traders or delivered to the traders<br />Women mainly sold at farm gate to farmers and traders<br />Women only sold honey at farm gate while men had 4 options for marketing honey<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18. What determines market participation by women?<br />Milk<br />Eggs<br />
  19. 19. Intra-household income control, decision making and expenditure<br />
  20. 20. Income control by men and women from all sources<br />
  21. 21. Income control by men and women for all livestock and products<br />
  22. 22. Income control by men and women for all livestock and products<br />Largest incomes from milk and chicken<br />Sold by women<br />Women control less than 30% of the income (high in terms of absolute values)<br />
  23. 23. Decision making on sale of women owned livestock<br />Women more likely to sell chicken that they own without consulting husbands, compared to other species <br />
  24. 24. Expenditure patterns<br />Most men used income from livestock on farming, savings and school fees<br />Women mainly used on fees, building, payment of loans and savings<br />
  25. 25. Conclusions and Implications (i)<br />Livestock ownership:<br />Clear patterns of ownership for large and small livestock. <br />Women and FHH households own less of all livestock compared to men and MHH. Women do not have final say in terms of sale of the livestock they own<br />Despite more women and FHH households owning more small livestock than the larger ones, these contribute a very small proportion of total livestock asset portfolio of these households<br />Increasing access and ownership of livestock assets by women is a critical first step not only in their empowerment but their participation in and benefits from livestock markets<br />Access to services<br />Training on livestock and livestock practices still targeted at men and very few women receiving training despite what we know about the roles of men and women in livestock production (especially in Tanzania, in Kenya, less than 40% of FHH)<br />Innovative approaches for increasing access to services and technologies including participatory research, group based schemes must accompany interventions to increase women’s participation in output markets<br />
  26. 26. Conclusions and Implications (ii)<br />Market participation by women<br />Most sales by women are done at farm gate to other farmers and traders while men sell more to shops /formal markets. These require less mobility and less investments e.g on transport assets<br />Women more engaged in the sale of livestock products compared to the sale of livestock and had a had lower number of options /outlets for sale of products<br />Women very engaged in product marketing—further analysis of what this engagement means for them in terms of benefits from these markets<br />An analysis of existing markets, women’s preferences and constraints should precede market development. <br />Need for multiple strategies including capacity building to engage in formal markets as well as improving women’s profile /roles in informal markets <br />Income control and decision making on livestock<br />Evaluation needs to go beyond overall household income to look at distributional impact and changes in decision making, management of income and gender equity<br />