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Tanzania Livestock Sector Analysis (LSA): Baseline feed resource assessment

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Presented by Nathaniel Mbwambo,Conrad Joseph Ndomba and Salim Werner Nandonde at the Tanzania Livestock Master Plan Technical Committee Meeting, Dar es Salaam, 23 June 2016

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Tanzania Livestock Sector Analysis (LSA): Baseline feed resource assessment

  1. 1. Tanzania Livestock Sector Analysis (LSA) Baseline: Feed Resource Assessment Tanzania Livestock Master Plan, Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Meeting, Colosseum Hotel, Dar Es Salaam 23 June 2016 Salim Nandonde, Nathaniel Mbwambo & Conrad Ndomba (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development) NOT FOR CITATION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The objective the assessment is to estimate; • The amount of feed available • The amount of feed required • The amount/proprortions of feed balance Although estimates is at national level, the process consider the three Livestock production zones (i.e. Central, Coastal-and-Lakes and Highlands) and three weather (year) production’s situations (i.e. average, bad and good)
  3. 3. Methodology • Data collection were basically consultative • Secondary data were collected for various Ministries, institutions and departments. • Data on Land Size and Land-use from (MLHHSD and MNRT/TFS/NAFORMA). • Data on crop production to estimate crop residues and by-products (MALF, RAS-Mwz) • Literatures search and consultations (SUA and TALIRI) for feed’s nutritive values, productivity, availability and requirements. • Preliminary analysis was done to obtain intermediate results (data) to be fed into LSIPT for the final results
  4. 4. Intermediate results Table 1: Total Land size distribution in Tanzania* Production Zone Size (Km2) Percentage Central 228,768 26 Coast and Lake 351,950 40 Highlands 299,158 34 879,876 100 *Tanzania Mainland Source: LSA
  5. 5. Table 2: Distribution of land size by land use in Tanzania (%) Production Zones Type of land use Central Coast and Lake Highland s Overall Production Forestry 17 24 26 23 Protection forestry 10 10 12 10 Wildlife reserve 17 25 22 22 Shifting cultivation 6 7 7 7 Agriculture 29 23 19 23 Grazing Land 17 7 10 10 Built-up areas 2 2 2 2 inland water body or swamp 1 1 1 1 Other lands 1 2 2 2 100 100 100 100
  6. 6. Table 3: Distribution of agriculture land area producing major crop residues in average weather year (%) Production Zones Central Coastal and Lake Highlands Rain-fed cereals (maize straw etc) 36 40 39 Rice (straw) 3 6 4 Groundnut (haulms etc) 4 2 3 Adventitious plants and leaves (Banana etc) 5 14 13 Tubers (sweet potato etc) 6 13 13 55 75 73 Source: LSA
  7. 7. Table 4: Distribution of agriculture land area producing major crop residues in Tanzania in bad weather year (%) Production Zones Category of crop residue Centra l Coastal and Lake Highlands Rain-fed cereals (maize straw etc.) 18 22 20 Rice straw 2 3 2 Groundnut etc. 2 1 2 Adventitious plants and leaves (Banana etc.) 1 8 8 Tubers (sweet potato etc.) 2 6 5 25 41 37
  8. 8. Table 5: Distribution of agricultural land area producing major crop residues in Tanzania in good weather year (% ) Category of Crop Residue Production Zones Central Coastal and Lake Highlands Rain-fed cereals (maize straw etc.) 60 72 65 Rice straw 7 10 7 Groundnut etc. 7 4 5 Adventitious plants and leaves (Banana etc.) 11 23 18 Tubers (sweet potato etc.) 11 25 25 97 134 121
  9. 9. Table 6: The range of productivity and availability feeds Category of feed Productivity (Tons DM/Km2 *Availability (%) Natural forage 200-350 30-40 Established pastures 500-1500 40-50 Rain-fed cereals straws (maize etc.) 74-114 30-50 Rice straw 146-357 30-50 Groundnut etc. 105-150 30-50 Adventitious plants and leaves (Banana etc.) 274-659 30-50 Tubers (sweet potato etc.) 87-198 30-50 Crop by products - 50-90 *considering a sustainable ecosystem Source: LSA
  10. 10. Table 7: Daily net energy requirement for cattle over the period of 16 months Purpose with unit of reference Energy req. in extensive production (MJ) Energy req. intensive production (MJ) Maintenance (day) 19.66 24.73 Movement (%) 8.26 2.47 Milk_calf (kg) 3.12 3.12 Milk_production (kg) 3.12 3.12 Weight loss (kg) 24.85 24.85 Weight gain (kg) 31.95 31.95 Gestation (day) 5.82 5.82
  11. 11. Table 8: Daily net energy requirement for sheep and goat in a year Purpose with unit of reference Net energy requirement_Sheep (MJ) Net energy requirement_Goat (MJ) Maintenance (day) 3.37 3.19 Movement (%) 1.35 1.44 Milk_calf (kg) 4.97 3.12 Milk_production (kg) 4.97 3.12 Weight loss (kg) 17.75 17.04 Weight gain (kg) 22.72 21.30 Gestation (day) 0.71 0.71
  12. 12. Results Table 9: Feed requirement for a herd of 100 cattle _extensive Number kgDM/animal/year kgDM/group/year Cow 30 3,211 96,316 Heifer 20 2,107 42,135 Heifer calf 12 945 11,337 Bull 13 3,191 41,485 Young bull 17 2,512 42,706 Calf 8 936 7,488 241,467
  13. 13. Table: 10 Feed requirement for a herd of 100 cattle _intensive* Number kgDM/animal/year kgDM/group/year Cow 60 3,761 225,671 Heifer 20 2,220 44,403 Heifer calf 10 911 9,114 Bull 5 2,455 12,277 Young bull 2 2,066 4,132 Calf 3 1,039 2,597 298,195 * Dairy and fattening
  14. 14. Table 11: Feed requirement for a herd of 100 sheep Number kgDM/animal/year kgDM/group/year Ewes 40 583 23,301 Ewe lambs 22 455 10,010 Rams 16 653 10,451 Ram lambs 22 492 10,818 54,579
  15. 15. Table 12: Computed feed requirement for a herds of 100 goats Number kgDM/animal/year kgDM/group/year Goats 40 546 21,859 Young female goats 22 372 8,185 Male goats 16 596 9,535 Kids 22 404 8,890 48,469
  16. 16. Table 13: Feed resources need, available and balance in a baseline year 2016 Weather Status (Year) Average Bad Good Quantity of feed available (x106 Tones DM) 21 10 35 Quantity of feed need (x106 Tones DM) 80 80 80 *Quantity of feed balance (x106 Tones DM) -59 -70 -45 % feed resource available against the need 26% 13% 43% *The grain requirements for meat (pig/ poultry) and eggs production is 12% of the produced grains Source: LSA
  17. 17. Conclusion • Land allocated for grazing is lower (9.1 million Ha) than reported (>53Million Ha) • Low “rangelands” productivity (Climate change/poor mngt.) • Very low production of established pasture • Feed shortage despite “normal mortality” implying that livestock survive by forage from non-grazing land, thereby low productivity (milk, meat etc.) and increasing land use conflicts.
  18. 18. The way forward • Analysis of feed balance in each production zone for clarity • Scenario analysis with inclusion of feed sources beyond grazing land and agric. Land (e.g. production forest); and better husbandry

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