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Dynamic drivers of disease in Africa: Epidemiology and disease burden


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Presentation by Johanna Lindahl, Alexandra Shaw and Delia Grace at the EcoHealth 2014 conference, Montreal, Canada, 11-14 August 2014.

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Dynamic drivers of disease in Africa: Epidemiology and disease burden

  1. 1. Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Integrating our understandings of zoonoses, ecosystems and wellbeing Epidemiology and disease burden Johanna Lindahl, Alexandra Shaw and Delia Grace EcoHealth 2014 conference Montreal, Canada, 11-15 August 2014
  2. 2. Epidemiology •The patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in populations •For many diseases we lack knowledge •Not much research •Much research but still not understanding •Lack information on how to prevent
  3. 3. S E I R New population at risk Global trade and travelling Increased contact with wildlife Close contact between different species Transfer or recruitment of new vectors New habits, new cultures Migration of people or animals to new areas New species at risk / host transfer Decreased immunization and immunity Markets Urbanization Environmental land degradation Poverty Undernutrition, starvation Governmental finances and priorities Ageing population Compartmental epidemiological models
  4. 4. Increased risk of exposure Habitat fragmentation Decreased biodiversity Increased number of vectors High density Lack of knowledge Less dilution from alternate hosts Reduced food safety Water scarcity Disrupted social systems Poverty Urbanization Markets Industrialization of animal production Littering Irrigation Fertilisers Deforestation Agricultural intensification and development Climate changes S E I R
  5. 5. Anthropogenic action: Increased irrigation Effect on ecosystem: Creates more larval habitats Vector consequence: More infected vectors Epidemiologic consequence: More individuals exposed Increased disease Most drivers are desired – and not constantly leading to disease
  6. 6. A framework to help understand costs and to model costs •Aim is to collect the data necessary to make an assessment of the multiple burden of disease •Using the same framework for multiple diseases helps comparison •Economic modelling important for policy makers •Money matters •Priorities
  7. 7. Thank you For more information on our Consortium: @DDDAC_org