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Sheep and goat improvement programs: Ethiopian experience

Presented by Ayele Abebe, EIAR, at the 7th Africa Agriculture Science Week, Kigali, Rwanda, 13-16 June 2016

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Sheep and goat improvement programs: Ethiopian experience

  1. 1. Sheep and Goat Improvement Programs Ethiopian experience Ayele Abebe, EIAR 7th Africa Agriculture Science Week, Kigali, Rwanda, 13-16 June 2016
  2. 2. Doc ID 2 Ethiopia is a land of diversity  With 18 different agro ecologies  Rich and hosts several flora and fauna Introduction
  3. 3. Doc ID 3 Introduction cont’d •Ethiopia has an estimated population of 27.3 million sheep and 28.2 million goats (CSA, 2014) •Are distributed in all agro-ecological areas of the country.
  4. 4. Doc ID 4 Introduction cont’d o Sheep and goat are important for the farmers and pastoralists (sources of livelihood) o Apart from their role at HH and communal level, small ruminants have national importance as they provide  for about 46% of the national meat consumption,  58% of the value of hide and skin production (Kassahun et al., 1991) and significant amount of export earnings
  5. 5. Doc ID 5 • Unlike improved breeds elsewhere, most of the indigenous breeds are not selected for their production performance. • Gross off-take rates were estimated to range from 10 to 35% for sheep and 11 to 38% for goats • While commercial off-take rates were in the range of 6 to 22% for sheep and 7 to 18% in goats (MoA, 1985; Belete 2009; Belachew and Jemberu, 2003; Mohammad et al., 2007; Asfaw and Jabbar, 2008 Introduction cont’d
  6. 6. Doc ID 6 Introduction cont’d The principal constraints are: o Diseases and parasites, o Poor nutrition (quality and quantity), o Unimproved genetic potential of local breeds, o Poor marketing infrastructure and access to markets, o Minimal institutional and support services, and o Poor access to and sub-optimal utilization of knowledge, information and technologies (Markos 2000; Tsedeke 2007; Gizaw et al., 2013).  The influence of these constraints is manifested through reduced reproductive efficiency, high mortality, slower growth rate of survivors, low off take rate and return.
  7. 7. Doc ID 7 Current status To narrow the gap in productivity of sheep and Goat • Research projects were initiated and implemented  crossbreeding has been applied on a number of sheep and goat breeds in the country.  Cross breeding in sheep and goats was not successful
  8. 8. Doc ID 8 • The adoption of results generated from past research endeavors has been negligible and the impact on the overall production and productivity level is hardly notable  Efforts was made to improve indigenous sheep by selection (on-station), Current status
  9. 9. Doc ID 9 • Improving local sheep through selective breeding  On 3 breeds (Menz, Afar and Horro) • Establishment of elite nucleus flock for Menz sheep – Promising result was obtained from on-station selection program for Menz sheep Current status
  10. 10. Doc ID 10 Trend of genetic improvement for Menz sheep under selection program
  11. 11. Doc ID 11 11
  12. 12. Doc ID 12 Currently born lambs from Menz selection program on- station Current status
  13. 13. Doc ID 13 13 Current status
  14. 14. Doc ID 14 • Past failures prompted research on the design of alternative community based breeding programs. • For instance, village-based cooperative/community breeding programs have now been established for Menz, Horro and Bonga sheep breeds  The ILRI/ICARDA and Boku University came with the idea of community based breeding programs in the Ethiopia o It is a kind of value chain approach where by which the focus is from farm to fork Current status
  15. 15. Doc ID 15 Current status Appreciable genetic improvement has been achieved in the Menz program (DARGEGN VILLAGE) • Body weights at birth, 3 and 6 months of age increased by: • 0.42, 2.29 and 2.46 kg, respectively, in the third generation over those in the base generation. Appreciable genetic improvement has been achieved in the Menz program (DARGEGN VILLAGE) • Body weights at birth, 3 and 6 months of age increased by: • 0.42, 2.29 and 2.46 kg, respectively, in the third generation over those in the base generation.
  16. 16. Doc ID 16 16
  17. 17. Doc ID 17 Current status
  18. 18. Doc ID 18 Menz sheep in a community based breeding Current status
  19. 19. Doc ID 19 Current status
  20. 20. Doc ID 20 20
  21. 21. Doc ID 21
  22. 22. Doc ID 22 22 Role of ILRI/ICARDA Approach of community based breeding programs: • Adopted value chain approach  Organization  Breeding  Feeds and feeding systems  Health interventions  Marketing  Input supply • Participatory research (research and development at a time) • Animal identification • Farmers’ preference • Recording • Selection • Culling Approach of community based breeding programs: • Adopted value chain approach  Organization  Breeding  Feeds and feeding systems  Health interventions  Marketing  Input supply • Participatory research (research and development at a time) • Animal identification • Farmers’ preference • Recording • Selection • Culling We work together from planning to implementation of the CBBP
  23. 23. Doc ID 23 Because of the results obtained from the CBBP the Government of Ethiopia: • Took it as a best practice • Allocated budget from the national system and start implementation • In GTP 2, • Livestock master plan of Ethiopia (20 years) since 2015 • Sheep and commodity strategy (2015-2030). • Included in the Road map of Ethiopian Ls research • Included in the Road map of Red meat production • Partnership between NARS and ILRI/ICARDA is worth mentioning.
  24. 24. Doc ID 24 24 Award

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